102 research outputs found

    Coupling between pore formation and phase separation in charged lipid membranes

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    We investigated the effect of charge on the membrane morphology of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) composed of various mixtures containing charged lipids. We observed the membrane morphologies by fluorescent and confocal laser microscopy in lipid mixtures consisting of a neutral unsaturated lipid [dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC)], a neutral saturated lipid [dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)], a charged unsaturated lipid [dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG()^{\scriptsize{(-)}})], a charged saturated lipid [dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG()^{\scriptsize{(-)}})], and cholesterol (Chol). In binary mixtures of neutral DOPC/DPPC and charged DOPC/DPPG()^{\scriptsize{(-)}}, spherical vesicles were formed. On the other hand, pore formation was often observed with GUVs consisting of DOPG()^{\scriptsize{(-)}} and DPPC. In a DPPC/DPPG()^{\scriptsize{(-)}}/Chol ternary mixture, pore-formed vesicles were also frequently observed. The percentage of pore-formed vesicles increased with the DPPG()^{\scriptsize{(-)}} concentration. Moreover, when the head group charges of charged lipids were screened by the addition of salt, pore-formed vesicles were suppressed in both the binary and ternary charged lipid mixtures. We discuss the mechanisms of pore formation in charged lipid mixtures and the relationship between phase separation and the membrane morphology. Finally, we reproduce the results seen in experimental systems by using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations.Comment: 34 pages, 10 figure

    Charge-induced phase separation in lipid membranes

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    The phase separation in lipid bilayers that include negatively charged lipids is examined experimentally. We observed phase-separated structures and determined the membrane miscibility temperatures in several binary and ternary lipid mixtures of unsaturated neutral lipid, dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), saturated neutral lipid, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), unsaturated charged lipid, dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG()^{\scriptsize{(-)}}), saturated charged lipid, dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG()^{\scriptsize{(-)}}), and cholesterol. In binary mixtures of saturated and unsaturated charged lipids, the combination of the charged head with the saturation of hydrocarbon tail is a dominant factor for the stability of membrane phase separation. DPPG()^{\scriptsize{(-)}} enhances phase separation, while DOPG()^{\scriptsize{(-)}} suppresses it. Furthermore, the addition of DPPG()^{\scriptsize{(-)}} to a binary mixture of DPPC/cholesterol induces phase separation between DPPG()^{\scriptsize{(-)}}-rich and cholesterol-rich phases. This indicates that cholesterol localization depends strongly on the electric charge on the hydrophilic head group rather than on the ordering of the hydrocarbon tails. Finally, when DPPG()^{\scriptsize{(-)}} was added to a neutral ternary system of DOPC/DPPC/Cholesterol (a conventional model of membrane rafts), a three-phase coexistence was produced. We conclude by discussing some qualitative features of the phase behaviour in charged membranes using a free energy approach.Comment: 17 pages, 6 figure

    Bipartite Modular Multiplication

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    This paper proposes a new fast method for calculating modular multiplication. The calculation is performed using a new represen- tation of residue classes modulo M that enables the splitting of the multiplier into two parts. These two parts are then processed separately, in parallel, potentially doubling the calculation speed. The upper part and the lower part of the multiplier are processed using the interleaved modular multiplication algorithm and the Montgomery algorithm respectively. Conversions back and forth between the original integer set and the new residue system can be performed at speeds up to twice that of the Montgomery method without the need for precomputed constants. This new method is suitable for both hardware implementation; and software implementation in a multiprocessor environment. Although this paper is focusing on the application of the new method in the integer eld, the technique used to speed up the calculation can also easily be adapted for operation in the binary extended eld GF(2m)

    Rheological Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Bacillus subtilis FT-3 Polysaccharide

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    Rheological properties of the aqueous solutions of FT-3 polysaccharide were studied by means of the creep measurement and steady flow viscosity. Salt-type FT-3 polysaccharide solutions (salt-type solutions) showed a shear thinning-type non-Newtonian flow over the range of measuring rates of shear in either case of the aqueous media with or without electrolytes. H-type FT-3 polysaccharide solutions (H-type solutions) exhibited the shear thinning flow in a range of low rates of shear, and the reduced viscosity of the H-type solutions was about one hundredth that of the salt-type solutions in the presence of electrolytes. No significant deformation due to the elastic property was observed in the creep compliance vs. time curve obtained with relatively concentrated salt-type solutions. Factors affecting the rheological properties of the polysaccharide solutions are discussed from the view point of the conformational changes mainly due to ionized carboxylic groups of the polysaccharide molecules

    J- and Ks-band Galaxy Counts and Color Distributions in the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole Field

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    We present the J- and Ks-band galaxy counts and galaxy colors covering 750 square arcminutes in the deep AKARI North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) field, using the FLoridA Multi-object Imaging Near-ir Grism Observational Spectrometer (FLAMINGOS) on the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) 2.1m telescope. The limiting magnitudes with a signal-to-noise ratio of three in the deepest regions are 21.85 and 20.15 in the J- and Ks-bands respectively in the Vega magnitude system. The J- and Ks-band galaxy counts in the AKARI NEP field are broadly in good agreement with those of other results in the literature, however we find some indication of a change in the galaxy number count slope at J~19.5 and over the magnitude range 18.0 < Ks < 19.5. We interpret this feature as a change in the dominant population at these magnitudes because we also find an associated change in the B - Ks color distribution at these magnitudes where the number of blue samples in the magnitude range 18.5 < Ks < 19.5 is significantly larger than that of Ks < 17.5