78 research outputs found

    STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC AND HPTLC METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ZANAMIVIR IN BULK AND DOSAGE FORM

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    Objective: To develop a simple, precise, accurate, validated stability indicating reverse phase high-pressure liquid chromatography and high-performance thin layer chromatography method for the determination of zanamivir in bulk and capsule dosage form.Methods: The high-pressure liquid chromatography separation was achieved on Agilent TC C18 (2) 250 x 4.6 mm, 5 μ column using mobile phase composition of methanol-0.02 M phosphate buffer, pH 3.5, 50:50 (v/v). Flow rate was maintained at 1 ml/min at an ambient temperature. Quantification was achieved with ultraviolet detection at 230 nm. The retention time obtained for zanamivir was at 3.6 min. The method employed thin layer chromatography aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase. The solvent system consisted of chloroform: methanol: acetic acid (4.5:0.5:0.3v/v) and then scanned. The system was found to give a compact spot for zanamivir (Rf value of 0.29±0.02).Results: In HPLC,the result obtained with the detector response was found to be linear in the concentration range of 2-12 μg/ml. In HPTLC, the linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed a good relationship with r2=0.9999±0.0001 in the concentration range 500-3000 ng/spot. The reliability and analytical performance of the proposed methods, including linearity, range, precision, accuracy, detection and quantitation limits, were statistically validated. When zanamivir was subjected to different stress conditions; the proposed methods could effectively separate the drug from its degradation products, and were thus considered as good stability-indicating procedures.Conclusion: It is concluded that this method can be applied for routine quality control of zanamivir in dosage forms as well as in bulk drug.Keywords: Zanamivir, Reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography, High-pressure thin layer chromatography, Virenza capsule, Method development and validation, Stability indicatin

    Performance of sequential herbicides to control weeds in direct seeded rice

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    Direct seeded rice is an emerging production technology in India due to less requirement of water, labour and capital input initially. But direct seeded rice face severe infestation of weeds. A field experiment was conducted during the kharif 2012 at Students’ Farm of College of Agriculture, CCS Haryana Agricultural University; Kaul campus (Kaithal) to study the performance of sequential application of herbicides on weed flora in direct seeded rice. The herbicidal treatments included two pre emergence herbicides i.e. pendimethalin 1000 g/ha and oxadiargyl 100 g/ ha and four post emergence herbicides (bispyribac sodium 25 g/ha, fenoxaprop 67 g/ha, ethoxysulfuron 18.75 g/ha and metsulfuron methyl 10% + chlorimuron ethyl 10% WP ready mix (Almix) 4 g/ha). Weed free and weedy check were also included. The results showed that grasses were the dominant weed flora (49 %) followed by sedges (34%) and broad leaf weeds (17%).Sequential application of pendimethalin 1000 g/ha fb bispyribac sodium 25 g/ha and metsulfuron methyl + chlorimuron ethyl RM (Almix) 4 g/ha gave significantly lower weed density (p=0.05) and higher weed control efficiency which resulted in more number of effective tillers (209.3), filled grains/panicle (83.7) and grain yield (3.97 t/ha)

    The evolution and impact of 3000 M_\odot stars in the early Universe

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    We present evolutionary models of massive, accreting population III stars with constant and variable accretion rates until the end of silicon burning, with final masses of 1000 - 3000 Msol. In all our models, after the core-hydrogen-burning phase, the star expands towards the red side of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is where it spends the rest of its evolution. During core helium burning, the models exhibit an outer convective envelope as well as many large intermediate convective zones.These intermediate zones allow for strong internal mixing to occur which enriches the surface in helium. The effect of increasing metallicity at a constant accretion rate of 10^{-3} Msol/yr shows an increase in the lifetime, final mass and distribution of helium in the envelope. Our fiducial model with mass of 3000 Msol has a final surface helium abundance of 0.74 and 9% of its total mass or 50% of the core mass, has a value of Gamma1 < 4/3 at the end of core silicon burning. If the collapse of the core is accompanied by the ejection of the envelope above the carbon-oxygen core, this could have a significant impact on the chemical evolution of the surroundings and subsequent stellar generations. The model has a final log(N/O) ~ 0.45, above the lower limit in the recently detected high-redshift galaxy GN-z11. We discuss the impact of a single 3000 Msol star on chemical, mechanical and radiative feedback, and present directions for future work.Comment: Accepted for publication in A&

    Integrated weed management in direct seeded rice in Trans Indo-Gangetic plains of India- A review

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    In the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) of India, rice (Oryza sativa L.) is taken by conventional tilled puddled transplanted (CT-PTR) method. CT-PTR requires a lot of water (2000-2500 mm) which comes mainly from groundwater. Due to declining water table and changing climate, the sustainability of CT-PTR rice is under immense pressure. The alternative to CT-PTR could be direct seeded rice (DSR) which requires less water, labor, initial cost and energy than CT-PTR. But direct seeded rice is heavily infested with weeds which cause severe loss to the grain yield. Thus, the success of aerobic rice depends on effective and timely weed control. As a single weed control method may not be successful on a long term basis, weed problem in direct seeded rice needs to be solved by integrated approach. Integrating cultural, mechanical and chemical methods along with highly competitive cultivars with effective allelopathic properties, effective weed management on long term sustainable basis can be achieved

    Evaluation of antioxidant potential of melatonin in periodontitis: a prospective clinic-biochemical study

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    Background: The present study was done with an objective to evaluate the effect of melatonin as an antioxidant in patients suffering from periodontitis.Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Periodontics, Rural Dental College, Loni. Patients of chronic periodontitis, of age between 18 to 65 years of either gender ready to give informed consent to participate in the study were included. Postoperative patients, patients having night duties, drivers and those using heavy machinery, pregnant women, lactating mothers, patients with any clinically significant systemic disease and patients on any other drugs were excluded from the study. Patients were divided into three Groups. Group A included patients who underwent SRP (Scaling and Root Planning) alone, Group B included patients who underwent SRP & supplemented with Vitamin E 200 IU daily at night for 4 weeks. Group C included patients who underwent SRP & supplemented with tablet melatonin 3 mg daily at night for 4 weeks. Estimation of Malondialdehyde (MDA) for serum lipid peroxidation8, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was done on day 0, day 30, day 60 and day 90.Results: A total 240 patients were enrolled in the study. It was demonstrated that there was considerable oxidative stress in periodontitis patients, as established by high serum MDA levels, which was reduced significantly by melatonin reflecting its antioxidant potential. Pretreatment levels of SOD and GPx also were low, which were improved with the treatment of melatonin far better than with vitamin E.Conclusions: Melatonin acts as an antioxidant in the patients of periodontitis which has positive effect on biochemical parameters of periodontitis, conferring a new facet to the management of periodontitis and an attempt to impede the disease progression

    Influence of different transplanting date and weed management practices on yield and quality of basmati rice (Pusa Basmati-1509)

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    A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2014 at students’ farm of Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, college of agriculture, Kaul (Kaithal). The experiment consisted of four transplanting dates (June 15, July 5, July 25 and August 15) in main plots and six weed control treatments in sub plots treatments consisted of pre-emergence application of pretilachlor, oxadiargyl alone and sequential application of pre and post emergence herbicides viz., pretilachlor fb bispyribac, oxadiargyl fb bispyribac, weed free check and unweeded check. Based on research investigation it was observed that early transplanting dates (June 15 and July 5) produced taller plant, higher tillers/m2 and crop dry matter accumulation at all growth stages. Early transplanting produced significantly higher number of effective tillers/m2 (263) along with higher number of filled grain/ panicle (85) than delayed planting (July 25 and August 15). The 1000-grain weight was not affected by time of transplanting. The highest grain yield (4363 kg/ha) was recorded under June 15 transplanting which was statistically at par to the grain yield (4058 kg/ha) obtained under July 5 transplanting. Among the weed management practices tried, weed free check resulted in the highest values of plant height (104.2 cm), tillers/m2 (305), crop dry matter accumulation (964 g/ m2), effective tillers/m2 (271), grains length (8.5 cm), filled grains/panicle (86.3) as well as grain (4516 kg/ha) and straw yield (5506 kg/ha) which were however, comparable to pre-emergence application of oxadiargyl followed by bispyribac-sodium applied at 25 DAT and pretilachlor followed by bispribac-sodium at 25DAT

    Evaluation of Effect of Melatonin on Hematological Parameters in Patients of Periodontitis

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    Introduction: Considering the immunity enhancing property of melatonin, a study on the evaluation of the effect of melatonin on the hematological parameters in patients suffering from Periodontitis.&nbsp; Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Periodontics, Rural Dental College, Loni. Patients of chronic Periodontitis, of age between 18 to 65 years of either gender ready to give informed consent to participate in the study were included. Postoperative patients, patients having night duties, drivers and those using heavy machinery, pregnant women, lactating mothers, patients with any clinically significant systemic disease and patients on any other drugs were excluded from the study. Patients were divided into two Groups. Group B received scaling and root planning (SRP) and melatonin 3 mg per day were compared to Group A which received SRP only. The Total Leukocyte count, Differential Leukocyte count and Erythrocyte sedimentation rate of each patient was studied at a baseline, 1st (30 days) visit, 2nd (60 days) visit and 3rd (90 days) visit. Results: Both the groups consisted of 80 subjects each. Group A consisted of 71.25% male and 28.75% female patients. There were 56.25% male and 43.75% female patients in Group B. With respect to visit 3, the TLC was statistically lower in Group B. The neutrophil count of Group B was significantly lower during visit 3 as compared to Group A. The lymphocyte count of Group B was significantly lower than that of Group A during the visit 1, and also significantly higher during visit 3 on comparison with Group A. There was no statistically significant difference in the groups with respect to eosinophil and basophil count. The Monocyte count of Group B was statistically lower when compared to that of Group A. There was no statistically significant difference between ESR of Group A &amp; Group B.&nbsp; Conclusions: It can be concluded that melatonin has a positive effect on TLC and differential count of patients of periodontitis, conferring a new facet to the management of periodontitis and an attempt to impede the disease progression. Keywords: Melatonin; Hematological parameters; Periodontitis; Total Leukocyte count; Differential Leukocyte count; Erythrocyte sedimentation rate; Scaling and Root Planning

    Evaluation of Effect of Melatonin on Hematological Parameters in Patients of Periodontitis

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    Introduction: Considering the immunity enhancing property of melatonin, a study on the evaluation of the effect of melatonin on the hematological parameters in patients suffering from Periodontitis.&nbsp; Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Periodontics, Rural Dental College, Loni. Patients of chronic Periodontitis, of age between 18 to 65 years of either gender ready to give informed consent to participate in the study were included. Postoperative patients, patients having night duties, drivers and those using heavy machinery, pregnant women, lactating mothers, patients with any clinically significant systemic disease and patients on any other drugs were excluded from the study. Patients were divided into two Groups. Group B received scaling and root planning (SRP) and melatonin 3 mg per day were compared to Group A which received SRP only. The Total Leukocyte count, Differential Leukocyte count and Erythrocyte sedimentation rate of each patient was studied at a baseline, 1st (30 days) visit, 2nd (60 days) visit and 3rd (90 days) visit. Results: Both the groups consisted of 80 subjects each. Group A consisted of 71.25% male and 28.75% female patients. There were 56.25% male and 43.75% female patients in Group B. With respect to visit 3, the TLC was statistically lower in Group B. The neutrophil count of Group B was significantly lower during visit 3 as compared to Group A. The lymphocyte count of Group B was significantly lower than that of Group A during the visit 1, and also significantly higher during visit 3 on comparison with Group A. There was no statistically significant difference in the groups with respect to eosinophil and basophil count. The Monocyte count of Group B was statistically lower when compared to that of Group A. There was no statistically significant difference between ESR of Group A &amp; Group B.&nbsp; Conclusions: It can be concluded that melatonin has a positive effect on TLC and differential count of patients of periodontitis, conferring a new facet to the management of periodontitis and an attempt to impede the disease progression. Keywords: Melatonin; Hematological parameters; Periodontitis; Total Leukocyte count; Differential Leukocyte count; Erythrocyte sedimentation rate; Scaling and Root Planning

    Evaluation of antioxidant potential of melatonin in periodontitis with a focus on vitamin C

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    Background: The present study was done with an objective to evaluate the effect of melatonin as an antioxidant, with a focus on vitamin C, in patients suffering from periodontitis.Methods: This study was conducted jointly in the Department of Periodontics, Rural Dental College, and Department of Pharmacology, PIMS, Loni. Patients suffering from chronic periodontitis, of age between 18 to 65 years of either gender were included in the study, after obtaining a written informed consent. Patients were divided into three Groups. Group A included patients who underwent scaling and root planning (SRP) alone, Group B included patients who underwent SRP and supplemented with vitamin E 200 IU daily at night for 4 weeks. Group C included patients who underwent SRP and supplemented with tablet melatonin 3 mg daily at night for 4 weeks. Estimation of vitamin C was done on day 0, day 30, day 60 and day 90.Results: A total 240 patients were enrolled in the study, 80 in each group. Statistical analysis was done using ‘Z’ test of difference between two sample means for comparison of vitamin C among the three groups. It was observed that, there was a highly significant increase in mean values of vitamin C in group C when compared with group A and group B at 1st, 2nd and 3rd visits (p<0.01).Conclusions: Melatonin acts as an antioxidant in the patients of periodontitis which has positive effect on biochemical parameters of periodontitis, conferring a new facet to the management of periodontitis and an attempt to impede the disease progression

    The evolution and impact of 3000 M_\odot stars in the early Universe

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    peer reviewedWe present evolutionary models of massive, accreting population III stars with constant and variable accretion rates until the end of silicon burning, with final masses of 1000 - 3000 Msol. In all our models, after the core-hydrogen-burning phase, the star expands towards the red side of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is where it spends the rest of its evolution. During core helium burning, the models exhibit an outer convective envelope as well as many large intermediate convective zones.These intermediate zones allow for strong internal mixing to occur which enriches the surface in helium. The effect of increasing metallicity at a constant accretion rate of 10^{-3} Msol/yr shows an increase in the lifetime, final mass and distribution of helium in the envelope. Our fiducial model with mass of 3000 Msol has a final surface helium abundance of 0.74 and 9% of its total mass or 50% of the core mass, has a value of Gamma1 < 4/3 at the end of core silicon burning. If the collapse of the core is accompanied by the ejection of the envelope above the carbon-oxygen core, this could have a significant impact on the chemical evolution of the surroundings and subsequent stellar generations. The model has a final log(N/O) ~ 0.45, above the lower limit in the recently detected high-redshift galaxy GN-z11. We discuss the impact of a single 3000 Msol star on chemical, mechanical and radiative feedback, and present directions for future work
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