126 research outputs found

    Approximating the longest path length of a stochastic DAG by a normal distribution in linear time

    Get PDF
    AbstractThis paper presents a linear time algorithm for approximating, in the sense below, the longest path length of a given directed acyclic graph (DAG), where each edge length is given as a normally distributed random variable. Let F(x) be the distribution function of the longest path length of the DAG. Our algorithm computes the mean and the variance of a normal distribution whose distribution function F˜(x) satisfies F˜(x)⩽F(x) as long as F(x)⩾a, given a constant a (1/2⩽a<1). In other words, it computes an upper bound 1−F˜(x) on the tail probability 1−F(x), provided x⩾F−1(a). To evaluate the accuracy of the approximation of F(x) by F˜(x), we first conduct two experiments using a standard benchmark set ITC'99 of logical circuits, since a typical application of the algorithm is the delay analysis of logical circuits. We also perform a worst case analysis to derive an upper bound on the difference F˜−1(a)−F−1(a)

    A Transmembrane Single-Polypeptide-Chain (sc) Linker to Connect the Two G-Protein–Coupled Receptors in Tandem and the Design for an In Vivo Analysis of Their Allosteric Receptor- Receptor Interactions

    Get PDF
    A transmembrane (TM) single-polypeptide-chain (sc) linker can connect two G-protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) in tandem. The priority of a gene-fusion strategy for any two class A GPCRs has been demonstrated. In the striatal function, dopamine (DA) plays a critical role. In the striatum, how the GPCR for adenosine, subtype A2A (A2AR), contributes to the DA neurotransmission in the “volume transmission”/dual-transmission model has been studied extensively. In addition to the fusion receptor, i.e., the prototype scA2AR/D2R complex (the GPCR for DA, subtype D2), several types were created and tested experimentally. To further elucidate this in vivo, we designed a new molecular tool, namely, the supermolecule scA2AR/D2R. Here, no experiments on its expression were done. However, the TM linker to connect the nonobligate dimer as the transient class A GPCR nanocluster that has not been identified at the cell surface membrane deserves discussion through scA2AR/D2R. Supramolecular designs, are experimentally testable and will be used to confirm in vivo the functions of the two GPCRs interactive in such a low specific signal to the nonspecific noise (S/N) ratio in the neurotransmission in the brain. The sc also has, at last, become straightforward in the field of GPCRs, similar to in the field of antibody

    Discrete distributions whose truncated means have logarithmic order

    Get PDF
    Open House, ISM in Tachikawa, 2017.6.16統計数理研究所オープンハウス(立川)、H29.6.16ポスター発

    Bone marrow examination for detection of metastasis in patients with bronchogenic carcinoma: an evaluation of 107 patients.

    Get PDF
    As a staging procedure before treatment, examination of bone marrow from the posterior iliac crest was performed on a total of 107 patients with bronchogenic carcinoma. Among them, 11 patients (10.3%) had metastasis in the bone marrow: five of 39 adenocarcinomas, five of 33 small cell carcinomas, one of four large cell carcinomas, and none of 31 epidermoid carcinomas. Leukoerythroblastosis was found exclusively in the patients with metastasis, although the presence of tumor cells in the bone marrow did not correlate well with peripheral blood cell counts. Survival following an intensive chemotherapy in patients with bone marrow metastasis was substantially longer for those with small cell carcinoma than for those with other histologic types of bronchogenic carcinoma.</p

    Glucose Metabolism in Cataractous Lens

    Get PDF
    Since the sorbitol pathway in the lens of a diabetic rat was discovered, the relation between cataract formation and aldose reductase has been studied. We measured glucose, sorbitol and fructose in the human cataractous lens by the gaschromatography. Additionally, we measured sugar and polyols in bovine, pig and rabbit lens. The ratio of sorbitol/glucose is high in rabbit, pig and bovine lens in order. In the human cataractous lens, glucose is increased in accordance with development of cataract. On the other hand, sorbitol content is high in the diabetic lens and low in the senile cataractous lens. The aldose reductase inhibitor may have beneficial effects in the prevention of diabetic cataract formation, but have not the therapeutic effect in the senile cataract

    Whole lung lavage therapy for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: a global survey of current practices and procedures

    Get PDF
    Background: Whole lung lavage (WLL) is the current standard of care treatment for patients affected by pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). However, WLL is not standardized and international consensus documents are lacking. Our aim was to obtain a factual portrayal of WLL as currently practiced with respect to the procedure, indications for its use, evaluation of therapeutic benefit and complication rate. Methods: A clinical practice survey was conducted globally by means of a questionnaire and included 27 centers performing WLL in pediatric and/or adult PAP patients. Results: We collected completed questionnaires from 20 centres in 14 countries, practicing WLL in adults and 10 centers in 6 countries, practicing WLL in pediatric patients. WLL is almost universally performed under general anesthesia, with a double-lumen endobronchial tube in two consecutive sessions, with an interval of 1-2 weeks between sessions in approximately 50 % of centres. The use of saline warmed to 37 degrees C, drainage of lung lavage fluid by gravity and indications for WLL therapy in PAP were homogenous across centres. There was great variation in the choice of the first lung to be lavaged: 50 % of centres based the choice on imaging, whereas 50 % always started with the left lung. The choice of position was also widely discordant;the supine position was chosen by 50 % of centres. Other aspects varied significantly among centres including contraindications, methods and timing of follow up, use of chest percussion, timing of extubation following WLL and lung isolation and lavage methods for small children. The amount of fluid used to perform the WLL is a critical aspect. Whilst a general consensus exists on the single aliquot of fluid for lavage (around 800 ml of warm saline, in adults) great variability exists in the total volume instilled per lung, ranging from 5 to 40 liters, with an average of 15.4 liters/lung. Conclusions: This international survey found that WLL is safe and effective as therapy for PAP. However these results also indicate that standardization of the procedure is required;the present survey represents the a first step toward building such a document

    Whole lung lavage therapy for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: a global survey of current practices and procedures

    Get PDF
    Background: Whole lung lavage (WLL) is the current standard of care treatment for patients affected by pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). However, WLL is not standardized and international consensus documents are lacking. Our aim was to obtain a factual portrayal of WLL as currently practiced with respect to the procedure, indications for its use, evaluation of therapeutic benefit and complication rate. Methods: A clinical practice survey was conducted globally by means of a questionnaire and included 27 centers performing WLL in pediatric and/or adult PAP patients. Results: We collected completed questionnaires from 20 centres in 14 countries, practicing WLL in adults and 10 centers in 6 countries, practicing WLL in pediatric patients. WLL is almost universally performed under general anesthesia, with a double-lumen endobronchial tube in two consecutive sessions, with an interval of 1-2 weeks between sessions in approximately 50 % of centres. The use of saline warmed to 37 degrees C, drainage of lung lavage fluid by gravity and indications for WLL therapy in PAP were homogenous across centres. There was great variation in the choice of the first lung to be lavaged: 50 % of centres based the choice on imaging, whereas 50 % always started with the left lung. The choice of position was also widely discordant;the supine position was chosen by 50 % of centres. Other aspects varied significantly among centres including contraindications, methods and timing of follow up, use of chest percussion, timing of extubation following WLL and lung isolation and lavage methods for small children. The amount of fluid used to perform the WLL is a critical aspect. Whilst a general consensus exists on the single aliquot of fluid for lavage (around 800 ml of warm saline, in adults) great variability exists in the total volume instilled per lung, ranging from 5 to 40 liters, with an average of 15.4 liters/lung. Conclusions: This international survey found that WLL is safe and effective as therapy for PAP. However these results also indicate that standardization of the procedure is required;the present survey represents the a first step toward building such a document
    corecore