139 research outputs found

    A NOTE ON THE FACTORS AFFECTING CORN BASIS RELATIONSHIPS

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    Empirical tests were made of components of the corn basis in the U.S. utilizing a general theory of intertemporal price relationships for storable commodities. These tests showed that the basis consists of a risk premium, a speculative component, and a maturity basis apart from other factors such as storage costs for storable commodities. The results provide insights into factors affecting basis patterns for corn.Demand and Price Analysis,

    CASH AND FUTURES PRICE RELATIONSHIPS FOR NONSTORABLE COMMODITIES: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS USING A GENERAL THEORY

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    Empirical analysis examines the presence of basis risk, speculative component, and expected maturity basis component in basis relationships for nonstorable commodities. The results indicate that all three above components exist in both cattle and hog markets. The basis risk and speculative components vary across contracts. Hog markets showed seasonality, which helps explain the hog basis more accurately. Flexibility in making the marketing decision strengthens the explanation of intertemporal price relationships for both cattle and hogs beyond that previously attributed to only feed prices.Demand and Price Analysis, Marketing,

    Markets, Institutions, and the Quality of Agricultural Products: Cotton Quality in India

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    The modern global textile industry requires cotton with strong and consistent fibers in order to produce high quality goods at the high speeds necessary to recover capital costs. The introduction of high volume instrument (HVI) measurement of cotton fiber quality has strengthened the link between cotton prices and attributes on world markets. The spread of genetically modified (GMO) cotton in India has driven India to the second ranked producer and exporter of cotton in the world. However, contamination and other quality problems are endemic to Indian cotton. Using a unique data set of Indian cotton prices and quality attributes from 5 Indian states, this study uses hedonic price modeling to demonstrate that the linkages between cotton quality and price are weaker in India than they are in the United States.Crop Production/Industries, Production Economics,

    NEBULIZED GLYCOPYRRONIUM AND FORMOTEROL, BUDESONIDE AEROSOL AERODYNAMIC ASSESSMENT WITH VIBRATING MESH AND COMPRESSOR AIR NEBULIZER: ANDERSON CASCADE IMPACTOR STUDY

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    Vibrating mesh nebulizers (VMN) demonstrate improved efficiency for delivery of inhaled aerosol solutions or suspensions as compared to compressor devices. The added advantages of compactness, portability and functioning as noise-free device makes them of incremental value in Home or Ambulatory settings while managing Severe Obstructive airway disease or delivery of maintenance medications in these cases. This further circumvents the need for multiple devices thereby further improving patient compliance and convenience while delivering acute or maintenance formulations including Glycopyrronium (GLY) and Formoterol (FRM)/Budesonide(BUD) nebulizing solution formulations. To further assess the clinical role and feasibility of FRM-BUD formulation delivery kinetics  with or without GLY nebulizing solution through VMN and jet  nebulizers for In- & outpatient settings, 2 comparative in-vitro lung deposition studies were carried out utilizing Anderson Cascade impactor at 30 L/min; deposited drug concentrations in different stages were suitably collected and estimated by HPLC. Post-hoc analyses with p<0.05 was considered statistically significant for intergroup differences on FRM/BUD and GLY delivered through VMN or Compressor devices.  The calculated mean fine particle dose for FRM & BUD delivered by VMN or jet nebulizer showed no statistical difference. However the mean fine particle fraction for BUD delivered by VMN was significantly better compared to jet nebulizer than that for FRM. The Residual volume at 10 mins was significantly higher with jet nebulizer. The optimal APSD for GLY nebulizing solution admixture with FRM/BUD suspension delivered through VMN and Jet nebulizer offers a clinically relevant strategy for High risk COPD cases in Acute or Home settings

    Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Oxime Analogues

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    Novel oxime analogs have been synthesized from the tricyclic scaffolds. A series of iminoesters were synthesized by reacting oximes with anti-inflammatory drugs such as Naproxen, Ibuprofen, Aspirin, Etodolac, Aceclofenac, Flurbiprofen in the presence of the coupling agent N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide

    Hypoxia and HIF-1α promote lytic de novo KSHV infection

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    The impact of different stress conditions on the oncogenic Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) primary infection that can occur in vivo remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that KSHV can establish a latency or lytic cycle following de novo infection, depending on the conditions of the cellular environment. Previous studies showed that hypoxia is a natural stress condition that promotes lytic reactivation and contributes to KSHV pathogenesis, but its effect on de novo KSHV infection is unknown. To test the effect of hypoxia on KSHV infection, we infected cells under normoxia and hypoxia, performed a comparative analysis of viral gene expression and viral replication, and tested chromatinization of the KSHV genome during infection. We found that hypoxia induces viral lytic gene expression and viral replication following de novo infection in several biologically relevant cell types, in which the virus normally establishes latency under normoxia. We also found that hypoxia reduces the level of repressive heterochromatin and promotes the formation of a transcriptionally permissive chromatin on the incoming viral DNA during infection. We demonstrate that silencing hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) during hypoxia abrogates lytic KSHV infection, while the overexpression of HIF-1 alpha under normoxia is sufficient to drive lytic KSHV infection. Also, we determined that the DNA-binding domain and the N-terminal but not the C-terminal transactivation domain of HIF-1 alpha are required for HIF-1 alpha-induced lytic gene expression. Altogether, our data indicate that HIF-1 alpha accumulation, which can be induced by hypoxia, prevents the establishment of latency and promotes lytic KSHV infection following primary infection

    Using geospatial technology to strengthen data systems in developing countries: the case of agricultural statistics in India

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    Despite significant progress in the development of quantitative geography techniques and methods and a general recognition of the need to improve the quality of geographic data, few studies have exploited the potential of geospatial tools to augment the quality of available data methods in developing countries. This paper uses data from an extensive deployment of geospatial technology in India to compare crop areas estimated using geospatial technology to crop areas estimated by conventional methods and assess the differences between the methods. The results presented here show that crop area estimates based on geospatial technology generally exceed the estimates obtained using conventional methods. This suggests that conventional methods are unable to respond quickly to changes in cropping patterns and therefore do not accurately record the area under high-value cash crops. This finding has wider implications for commercializing agriculture and the delivery of farm credit and insurance services in developing countries. Significant data errors found in the conventional methods could affect critical policy interventions such as planning for food security. Some research and policy implications are discussed

    Prevalence and attributable health burden of chronic respiratory diseases, 1990–2017 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

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    Background Previous attempts to characterise the burden of chronic respiratory diseases have focused only on specific disease conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma. In this study, we aimed to characterise the burden of chronic respiratory diseases globally, providing a comprehensive and up-to-date analysis on geographical and time trends from 1990 to 2017. Methods Using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017, we estimated the prevalence, morbidity, and mortality attributable to chronic respiratory diseases through an analysis of deaths, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and years of life lost (YLL) by GBD super-region, from 1990 to 2017, stratified by age and sex. Specific diseases analysed included asthma, COPD, interstitial lung disease and pulmonary sarcoidosis, pneumoconiosis, and other chronic respiratory diseases. We also assessed the contribution of risk factors (smoking, second-hand smoke, ambient particulate matter and ozone pollution, household air pollution from solid fuels, and occupational risks) to chronic respiratory disease-attributable DALYs. Findings In 2017, 544.9 million people (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 506.9- 584.8) worldwide had a chronic respiratory disease, representing an increase of 39.8% compared with 1990. Chronic respiratory disease prevalence showed wide variability across GBD super-regions, with the highest prevalence among both males and females in high-income regions, and the lowest prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. The age-sex- specific prevalence of each chronic respiratory disease in 2017 was also highly variable geographically. Chronic respiratory diseases were the third leading cause of death in 2017 (7.0% [95% UI 6.8-7 .2] of all deaths), behind cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms. Deaths due to chronic respiratory diseases numbered 3 914 196 (95% UI 3 790 578-4 044 819) in 2017, an increase of 18.0% since 1990, while total DALYs increased by 13.3%. However, when accounting for ageing and population growth, declines were observed in age-standardised prevalence (14.3% decrease), agestandardised death rates (42.6%), and age-standardised DALY rates (38.2%). In males and females, most chronic respiratory disease-attributable deaths and DALYs were due to COPD. In regional analyses, mortality rates from chronic respiratory diseases were greatest in south Asia and lowest in sub-Saharan Africa, also across both sexes. Notably, although absolute prevalence was lower in south Asia than in most other super-regions, YLLs due to chronic respiratory diseases across the subcontinent were the highest in the world. Death rates due to interstitial lung disease and pulmonary sarcoidosis were greater than those due to pneumoconiosis in all super-regions. Smoking was the leading risk factor for chronic respiratory disease-related disability across all regions for men. Among women, household air pollution from solid fuels was the predominant risk factor for chronic respiratory diseases in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, while ambient particulate matter represented the leading risk factor in southeast Asia, east Asia, and Oceania, and in the Middle East and north Africa super-region. Interpretation Our study shows that chronic respiratory diseases remain a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, with growth in absolute numbers but sharp declines in several age-standardised estimators since 1990. Premature mortality from chronic respiratory diseases seems to be highest in regions with less-resourced health systems on a per-capita basis

    Prevalence and attributable health burden of chronic respiratory diseases, 1990–2017: A systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2017

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    © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license Background: Previous attempts to characterise the burden of chronic respiratory diseases have focused only on specific disease conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma. In this study, we aimed to characterise the burden of chronic respiratory diseases globally, providing a comprehensive and up-to-date analysis on geographical and time trends from 1990 to 2017. Methods: Using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017, we estimated the prevalence, morbidity, and mortality attributable to chronic respiratory diseases through an analysis of deaths, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and years of life lost (YLL) by GBD super-region, from 1990 to 2017, stratified by age and sex. Specific diseases analysed included asthma, COPD, interstitial lung disease and pulmonary sarcoidosis, pneumoconiosis, and other chronic respiratory diseases. We also assessed the contribution of risk factors (smoking, second-hand smoke, ambient particulate matter and ozone pollution, household air pollution from solid fuels, and occupational risks) to chronic respiratory disease-attributable DALYs. Findings: In 2017, 544·9 million people (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 506·9–584·8) worldwide had a chronic respiratory disease, representing an increase of 39·8% compared with 1990. Chronic respiratory disease prevalence showed wide variability across GBD super-regions, with the highest prevalence among both males and females in high-income regions, and the lowest prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. The age-sex-specific prevalence of each chronic respiratory disease in 2017 was also highly variable geographically. Chronic respiratory diseases were the third leading cause of death in 2017 (7·0% [95% UI 6·8–7·2] of all deaths), behind cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms. Deaths due to chronic respiratory diseases numbered 3 914 196 (95% UI 3 790 578–4 044 819) in 2017, an increase of 18·0% since 1990, while total DALYs increased by 13·3%. However, when accounting for ageing and population growth, declines were observed in age-standardised prevalence (14·3% decrease), age-standardised death rates (42·6%), and age-standardised DALY rates (38·2%). In males and females, most chronic respiratory disease-attributable deaths and DALYs were due to COPD. In regional analyses, mortality rates from chronic respiratory diseases were greatest in south Asia and lowest in sub-Saharan Africa, also across both sexes. Notably, although absolute prevalence was lower in south Asia than in most other super-regions, YLLs due to chronic respiratory diseases across the subcontinent were the highest in the world. Death rates due to interstitial lung disease and pulmonary sarcoidosis were greater than those due to pneumoconiosis in all super-regions. Smoking was the leading risk factor for chronic respiratory disease-related disability across all regions for men. Among women, household air pollution from solid fuels was the predominant risk factor for chronic respiratory diseases in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, while ambient particulate matter represented the leading risk factor in southeast Asia, east Asia, and Oceania, and in the Middle East and north Africa super-region. Interpretation: Our study shows that chronic respiratory diseases remain a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, with growth in absolute numbers but sharp declines in several age-standardised estimators since 1990. Premature mortality from chronic respiratory diseases seems to be highest in regions with less-resourced health systems on a per-capita basis. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
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