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    Policy support for wastewater use in Hanoi

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    Domestic wastewater use has the potential to be an important part of urban water management in Hanoi if it is supported by Vietnamese policy. This appears to be the case, with the water and environmental legislation stipulating discharge and treatment requirements; outlining financial incentives; and encouraging research, development and private participation in treatment and use. However, policies in potential reuse sectors, principally agriculture and aquaculture, do not reflect these positive assertions. Furthermore, inadequate financial provision for treatment that would facilitate planned use and stimulate private sector interest is also an impediment. In Hanoi, the result is that wastewater use takes place informally through the utilization of polluted water for agriculture and aquaculture. However, small changes could lead to safe, cost effective planned reuse which would protect the environment and provide Hanoi with a much needed water supply in the future