147 research outputs found

### A numerical study of a class of TVD schemes for compressible mixing layers

At high Mach numbers the two-dimensional time-developing mixing layer develops shock waves, positioned around large-scale vortical structures. A suitable numerical method has to be able to capture the inherent instability of the flow, leading to the roll-up of vortices, and also must be able to capture shock waves when they develop. Standard schemes for low speed turbulent flows, for example spectral methods, rely on resolution of all flow-features and cannot handle shock waves, which become too thin at any realistic Reynolds number. The performance of a class of second-order explicit total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes on a compressible mixing layer problem was studied. The basic idea is to capture the physics of the flow correctly, by resolving down to the smallest turbulent length scales, without resorting to turbulence or sub-grid scale modeling, and at the same time capture shock waves without spurious oscillations. The present study indicates that TVD schemes can capture the shocks accurately when they form, but (without resorting to a finer grid) have poor accuracy in computing the vortex growth. The solution accuracy depends on the choice of limiter. However a larger number of grid points are in general required to resolve the correct vortex growth. The low accuracy in computing time-dependent problems containing shock waves as well as vortical structures is partly due to the inherent shock-capturing property of all TVD schemes. In order to capture shock waves without spurious oscillations these schemes reduce to first-order near extrema and indirectly produce clipping phenomena, leading to inaccuracy in the computation of vortex growth. Accurate simulation of unsteady turbulent fluid flows with shock waves will require further development of efficient, uniformly higher than second-order accurate, shock-capturing methods

### Parametric forcing approach to rough-wall turbulent channel flow

The effects of rough surfaces on turbulent channel flow are modelled by an extra force term in the Navier–Stokes equations. This force term contains two parameters, related to the density and the height of the roughness elements, and a shape function, which regulates the influence of the force term with respect to the distance from the channel wall. This permits a more flexible specification of a rough surface than a single parameter such as the equivalent sand grain roughness. The effects of the roughness force term on turbulent channel flow have been investigated for a large number of parameter combinations and several shape functions by direct numerical simulations. It is possible to cover the full spectrum of rough flows ranging from hydraulically smooth through transitionally rough to fully rough cases. By using different parameter combinations and shape functions, it is possible to match the effects of different types of rough surfaces. Mean flow and standard turbulence statistics have been used to compare the results to recent experimental and numerical studies and a good qualitative agreement has been found. Outer scaling is preserved for the streamwise velocity for both the mean profile as well as its mean square fluctuations in all but extremely rough cases. The structure of the turbulent flow shows a trend towards more isotropic turbulent states within the roughness layer. In extremely rough cases, spanwise structures emerge near the wall and the turbulent state resembles a mixing layer. A direct comparison with the study of Ashrafian, Andersson & Manhart (Intl J. Heat Fluid Flow, vol. 25, 2004, pp. 373–383) shows a good quantitative agreement of the mean flow and Reynolds stresses everywhere except in the immediate vicinity of the rough wall. The proposed roughness force term may be of benefit as a wall model for direct and large-eddy numerical simulations in cases where the exact details of the flow over a rough wall can be neglecte

### The effect of Mach number on unstable disturbances in shock/boundary-layer interactions

The effect of Mach number on the growth of unstable disturbances in a boundary layer undergoing a strong interaction with an impinging oblique shock wave is studied by direct numerical simulation and linear stability theory (LST). To reduce the number of independent parameters, test cases are arranged so that both the interaction location Reynolds number (based on the distance from the plate leading edge to the shock impingement location for a corresponding inviscid flow) and the separation bubble length Reynolds number are held fixed. Small-amplitude disturbances are introduced via both white-noise and harmonic forcing and, after verification that the disturbances are convective in nature, linear growth rates are extracted from the simulations for comparison with parallel flow LST and solutions of the parabolized stability equations (PSE). At Mach 2.0, the oblique modes are dominant and consistent results are obtained from simulation and theory. At Mach 4.5 and Mach 6.85, the linear Navier-Stokes results show large reductions in disturbance energy at the point where the shock impinges on the top of the separated shear layer. The most unstable second mode has only weak growth over the bubble region, which instead shows significant growth of streamwise structures. The two higher Mach number cases are not well predicted by parallel flow LST, which gives frequencies and spanwise wave numbers that are significantly different from the simulations. The PSE approach leads to good qualitative predictions of the dominant frequency and wavenumber at Mach 2.0 and 4.5, but suffers from reduced accuracy in the region immediately after the shock impingement. Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes simulations are used to demonstrate that at finite amplitudes the flow structures undergo a nonlinear breakdown to turbulence. This breakdown is enhanced when the oblique-mode disturbances are supplemented with unstable Mack modes

### Use of passive scalar tagging for the study of coherent structures in the plane mixing layer

Data obtained from the numerical simulation of a 2-D mixing layer were used to study the feasibility of using the instantaneous concentration of a passive scalar for detecting the typical coherent structures in the flow. The study showed that this technique works quite satisfactorily and yields results similar to those that can be obtained by using the instantaneous vorticity for structure detection. Using the coherent events educed by the scalar conditioning technique, the contribution of the coherent events to the total turbulent momentum and scalar transport was estimated. It is found that the contribution from the typical coherent events is of the same order as that of the time-mean value. However, the individual contributions become very large during the pairing of these structures. The increase is particularly spectacular in the case of the Reynolds shear stress

### Performance of Low Dissipative High Order Shock-Capturing Schemes for Shock-Turbulence Interactions

Accurate and efficient direct numerical simulation of turbulence in the presence of shock waves represents a significant challenge for numerical methods. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the performance of high order compact and non-compact central spatial differencing employing total variation diminishing (TVD) shock-capturing dissipations as characteristic based filters for two model problems combining shock wave and shear layer phenomena. A vortex pairing model evaluates the ability of the schemes to cope with shear layer instability and eddy shock waves, while a shock wave impingement on a spatially-evolving mixing layer model studies the accuracy of computation of vortices passing through a sequence of shock and expansion waves. A drastic increase in accuracy is observed if a suitable artificial compression formulation is applied to the TVD dissipations. With this modification to the filter step the fourth-order non-compact scheme shows improved results in comparison to second-order methods, while retaining the good shock resolution of the basic TVD scheme. For this characteristic based filter approach, however, the benefits of compact schemes or schemes with higher than fourth order are not sufficient to justify the higher complexity near the boundary and/or the additional computational cost

### Scalar entrainment in the mixing layer

New definitions of entrainment and mixing based on the passive scalar field in the plane mixing layer are proposed. The definitions distinguish clearly between three fluid states: (1) unmixed fluid, (2) fluid engulfed in the mixing layer, trapped between two scalar contours, and (3) mixed fluid. The difference betwen (2) and (3) is the amount of fluid which has been engulfed during the pairing process, but has not yet mixed. Trends are identified from direct numerical simulations and extensions to high Reynolds number mixing layers are made in terms of the Broadwell-Breidenthal mixing model. In the limit of high Peclet number (Pe = ReSc) it is speculated that engulfed fluid rises in steps associated with pairings, introducing unmixed fluid into the large scale structures, where it is eventually mixed at the Kolmogorov scale. From this viewpoint, pairing is a prerequisite for mixing in the turbulent plane mixing layer

### Direct numerical simulation of compressible turbulence in a counter-flow channel configuration

Counter-flow configurations, whereby two streams of fluid are brought together from opposite directions, are highly efficient mixers due to the high turbulence intensities that can be maintained. In this paper, a simplified version of the problem is introduced that is amenable to direct numerical simulation. The resulting turbulent flow problem is confined between two walls, with one non-zero mean velocity component varying in the space direction normal to the wall, corresponding to a simple shear flow. Compared to conventional channel flows, the mean flow is inflectional and the maximum turbulence intensity relative to the maximum mean velocity is nearly an order of magnitude higher. The numerical requirements and turbulence properties of this configuration are first determined. The Reynolds shear stress is required to vary linearly by the imposed forcing, with a peak at the channel centreline. A similar behaviour is observed for the streamwise Reynolds stress, the budget of which shows an approximately uniform distribution of dissipation, with large contributions from production, pressure-strain and turbulent diffusion. A viscous sublayer is obtained near the walls and with increasing Reynolds number small-scale streaks in the streamwise momentum are observed, superimposed on the large-scale structures that buffet this region. When the peak local mean Mach number reaches 0.55, turbulent Mach numbers of 0.6 are obtained, indicating that this flow configuration can be useful to study compressibility effects on turbulence

### Numerical Simulations of the Late Stages of Transition to Turbulence

This viewgraph presentation reviews direct numerical simulation in the late stages of the transition process to turbulence

### Strong interaction of a turbulent spot with a shock-induced separation bubble

Direct numerical simulations have been conducted to study the passage of a turbulent spot through a shock-induced separation bubble. Localized blowing is used to trip the boundary layer well upstream of the shock impingement, leading to mature turbulent spots at impingement, with a length comparable to the length of the separation zone. Interactions are simulated at free stream Mach numbers of two and four, for isothermal (hot) wall boundary conditions. The core of the spot is seen to tunnel through the separation bubble, leading to a transient reattachment of the flow. Recovery times are long due to the influence of the calmed region behind the spot. The propagation speed of the trailing interface of the spot decreases during the interaction and a substantial increase in the lateral spreading of the spot was observed. A conceptual model based on the growth of the lateral shear layer near the wingtips of the spot is used to explain the change in lateral growth rat

### Direct numerical simulation of ‘short’ laminar separation bubbles with turbulent reattachment

Direct numerical simulation of the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations is used to study flows where laminar boundary-layer separation is followed by turbulent reattachment forming a closed region known as a laminar separation bubble. In the simulations a laminar boundary layer is forced to separate by the action of a suction profile applied as the upper boundary condition. The separated shear layer undergoes transition via oblique modes and [Lambda]-vortex-induced breakdown and reattaches as turbulent flow, slowly recovering to an equilibrium turbulent boundary layer. Compared with classical experiments the computed bubbles may be classified as ‘short’, as the external potential flow is only affected in the immediate vicinity of the bubble. Near reattachment budgets of turbulence kinetic energy are dominated by turbulence events away from the wall. Characteristics of near-wall turbulence only develop several bubble lengths downstream of reattachment. Comparisons are made with two-dimensional simulations which fail to capture many of the detailed features of the full three-dimensional simulations. Stability characteristics of mean flow profiles are computed in the separated flow region for a family of velocity profiles generated using simulation data. Absolute instability is shown to require reverse flows of the order of 15–20%. The three-dimensional bubbles with turbulent reattachment have maximum reverse flows of less than 8% and it is concluded that for these bubbles the basic instability is convective in nature

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