3 research outputs found

    Attitudes Towards Civil Service of Pakistan: A Perception Survey

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    The Civil Service of Pakistan (CSP) is generally regarded as a prestigious occupation offering numerous perks and benefits along with administrative power and high social status. Each year, thousands of applicants compete for a prized job in the civil service and only a fraction eventually makes it.1 Yet in recent years there has been a growing perception that the civil service might be losing its allure for at least three reasons. First, the salary structure of the civil service has not kept pace with the cost of living making it difficult for civil servants to maintain a decent living standard. Second, there has been a growing competition from the private sector which has created a variety of professional jobs in manufacturing and services sectors offering handsome salaries and other fringe benefits. Third, the civil service has faced mounting criticism in recent years for its inefficiency, and for its failure to modernise; and this may have spread a negative image among the potential entrants.2 It is important to note that the Federal Public Service Commission (FPSC) also laments the waning interest of highly qualified students in the civil service. 3 Against this backdrop, a survey was conducted to explore the students’ attitudes towards the civil service of Pakistan.4 This study reports some key findings of that survey. Section 2 provides some stylised facts about participants in the CSS examination based on secondary data. Section 3 spells out the survey methodology and highlights the key characteristics of the respondents. Section 4 examines students’ occupation choice in terms of a comparison between public and private sectors. Section 5 highlights student’s level of awareness about various aspects of the competitive examination while Section 6 explores students’ attitudes towards the civil service.5 Some key findings of the survey are summarised in the concluding section

    Determinants of Export Performance of Pakistan: Evidence from the Firm-Level Data

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    This paper explores the determinants of export performance at the level of firms in respect of their characteristics and supply side constraints. The analysis is based on a survey of export-oriented firms in four major sectors. The results indicate a relationship between the better performance of foreign-owned firms to their better know-how and resources compared to the domestically owned firms. Export performance is positively affected by the level of investment in market/client oriented technologies. Lack of certification of product and process standards is the main supply side constraint adversely affecting the firms’ export performance. Facilitation measures like export processing zones, internationally recognised testing labs, and industrial clusters would be helpful in improving the export performance of firms. JEL classification: F1, L1, L6 Keywords: Trade, Exports, Firms, Performance, Manufacturin

    An Analysis of Technology Adoption by Export-oriented Manufacturers in Pakistan.

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    This paper analyses the issue of technology adoption by export-oriented enterprises based on survey data. Using the Rank Model of technology adoption, the paper explores the role of several firm level characteristics that can influence firm’s decision to adopt new technology. The results show that younger and bigger firms have a higher probability of technology adoption. Firms that have obtained certifications to product and process standards demonstrate a higher likelihood of technology adoption. Domestically-owned firms are found to have a higher probability of technology adoption as compared with foreign-owned firms. The empirical findings underscore the need for policy options to encourage export-oriented enterprises to adopt new technology including, for example, fiscal incentives to encourage research and development activities, and up-gradation of physical infrastructure for product testing to facilitate certifications. JEL classification: C25, L60, O14 Keywords: Manufacturing Industries, Probit Model, Technology Adoption
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