40,352 research outputs found

    Analysis of a Model Biological Switch

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    A model mechanism proposed by Murray [Phil. Traps. Roy. Soc. London B, 295 (1981), pp. 473–496] for generating wing patterns and eyespots on butterflies and moths is based on a morphogen (S) activated biological switch for a gene product (g). We analyse one of the resulting partial differential equation systems, namely S_t = DΔS - kS, g_t = k_tS + αg (g-k_2) (g_c-g ), where D,k,k_1 ,k_2 ,g_c > k_2 and α are positive constants. We determine analytically the size of the spatial domain where g → g_c as t → ∞ after an influx of S at the origin. This gives the size of the eyespot in terms of the mechanism parameters. The analytical problem is a nontrivial singular perturbation expansion which we discuss in detail

    Simultaneous localization and map-building using active vision

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    An active approach to sensing can provide the focused measurement capability over a wide field of view which allows correctly formulated Simultaneous Localization and Map-Building (SLAM) to be implemented with vision, permitting repeatable long-term localization using only naturally occurring, automatically-detected features. In this paper, we present the first example of a general system for autonomous localization using active vision, enabled here by a high-performance stereo head, addressing such issues as uncertainty-based measurement selection, automatic map-maintenance, and goal-directed steering. We present varied real-time experiments in a complex environment.Published versio

    Extending sensor networks into the cloud using Amazon web services

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    Sensor networks provide a method of collecting environmental data for use in a variety of distributed applications. However, to date, limited support has been provided for the development of integrated environmental monitoring and modeling applications. Specifically, environmental dynamism makes it difficult to provide computational resources that are sufficient to deal with changing environmental conditions. This paper argues that the Cloud Computing model is a good fit with the dynamic computational requirements of environmental monitoring and modeling. We demonstrate that Amazon EC2 can meet the dynamic computational needs of environmental applications. We also demonstrate that EC2 can be integrated with existing sensor network technologies to offer an end-to-end environmental monitoring and modeling solution

    Late quaternary time series of Arabian Sea productivity: Global and regional signals

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    Modern annual floral and faunal production in the northwest Arabian Sea derives primarily from upwelling induced by strong southwest winds during June, July, and August. Indian Ocean summer monsoon winds are, in turn, driven by differential heating between the Asian continent and the Indian ocean to the south. This differential heating produces a strong pressure gradient resulting in southwest monsoon winds and both coastal and divergent upwelling off the Arabian Peninsula. Over geologic time scales (10(exp 4) to 10(exp 6) years), monsoon wind strength is sensitive to changes in boundary conditions which influence this pressure gradient. Important boundary conditions include the seasonal distribution of solar radiation, global ice volume, Indian Ocean sea surface temperature, and the elevation and albedo of the Asian continent. To the extent that these factors influence monsoon wind strength, they also influence upwelling and productivity. In addition, however, productivity associated with upwelling can be decoupled from the strength of the summer monsoon winds via ocean mechanisms which serve to inhibit or enhance the nutrient supply in the intermediate waters of the Indian Ocean, the source for upwelled waters in the Arabian Sea. To differentiate productivity associated with wind-induced upwelling from that associated with other components of the system such as nutrient sequestering in glacial-age deep waters, we employ a strategy which monitors independent components of the oceanic and atmospheric subsystems. Using sediment records from the Owen Ridge, northwest Arabian Sea, we monitor the strength of upwelling and productivity using two independent indicators, percent G. bulloides and opal accumulation. We monitor the strength of southwest monsoon winds by measuring the grain-size of lithogenic dust particles blown into the Arabian Sea from the surrounding deserts of the Somali and Arabian Peninsulas. Our current hypothesis is that the variability associated with the 41 kyr power in the G. bulloides and opal accumulation records derive from nutrient availability in the intermediate waters which are upwelled via monsoon winds. This hypothesis is testable by comparison with Cd records of intermediate and deep waters of the Atlantic and Indian Ocean

    Irrigation system performance assessment and diagnosis

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    Performance evaluation / Irrigation programs / Irrigation management / Irrigation systems / Case studies / Hydraulics / Management / Environmental effects / Asia / Africa / South America

    Overcoming migration during giant planet formation

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    In the core accretion model, gas giant formation is a race between growth and migration; for a core to become a jovian planet, it must accrete its envelope before it spirals into the host star. We use a multizone numerical model to extend our previous investigation of the "window of opportunity" for gas giant formation within a disk. When the collision cross-section enhancement due to core atmospheres is taken into account, we find that a broad range of protoplanetary disks posses such a window.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figs, accepted to ApJ

    Memory-Controlled Diffusion

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    Memory effects require for their incorporation into random-walk models an extension of the conventional equations. The linear Fokker-Planck equation for the probability density p(r,t)p(\vec r, t) is generalized to include non-linear and non-local spatial-temporal memory effects. The realization of the memory kernels are restricted due the conservation of the basic quantity pp. A general criteria is given for the existence of stationary solutions. In case the memory kernel depends on pp polynomially the transport is prevented. Owing to the delay effects a finite amount of particles remains localized and the further transport is terminated. For diffusion with non-linear memory effects we find an exact solution in the long-time limit. Although the mean square displacement shows diffusive behavior, higher order cumulants exhibits differences to diffusion and they depend on the memory strength

    Macroscopic description of particle systems with non-local density-dependent diffusivity

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    In this paper we study macroscopic density equations in which the diffusion coefficient depends on a weighted spatial average of the density itself. We show that large differences (not present in the local density-dependence case) appear between the density equations that are derived from different representations of the Langevin equation describing a system of interacting Brownian particles. Linear stability analysis demonstrates that under some circumstances the density equation interpreted like Ito has pattern solutions, which never appear for the Hanggi-Klimontovich interpretation, which is the other one typically appearing in the context of nonlinear diffusion processes. We also introduce a discrete-time microscopic model of particles that confirms the results obtained at the macroscopic density level.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figure

    State detection using coherent Raman repumping and two-color Raman transfers

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    We demonstrate state detection based on coherent Raman repumping and a two-color Raman state transfer. The Raman coupling during detection selectively eliminates unwanted dark states in the fluorescence cycle without compromising the immunity of the desired dark state to off-resonant scattering. We demonstrate this technique using 137Ba+^{137}\mathrm{Ba}^+ where a combination of Raman coupling and optical pumping leaves the D3/2D_{3/2} F"=3,mF"=3\ket{F"=3,m_F"=3} metastable state optically dark and immune to off-resonant scattering. All other states are strongly coupled to the upper P1/2P_{1/2} levels. We achieve a single shot state-detection efficiency of 89.6(3)89.6(3)% in a 1ms1\mathrm{ms} integration time, limited almost entirely by technical imperfections. Shelving to the F"=3,mF"=3\ket{F"=3,m_F"=3} state before detection is performed via a two-color Raman transfer with a fidelity of 1.00(3)1.00(3)