140 research outputs found

    Gli Obblighi informativi in materia di contratto di viaggio: dalla disciplina generale del contratto alla normativa dell'unione europea

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    The information obligations regarding travel contracts have undergone a profound evolution in recent years with respect to the general regulation of the contract, due to the intervention of the European Union legislation on consumer protection and tourist packages and related tourist services. As a result, the duty of information, which was previously an unwritten general rule of conduct, substantially implementing the duty of good faith and fairness referred to in articles 1175 and 1375 of the civil code, becomes a protection openly provided in favour of the weak consumer against contractual asymmetry and risk of abuse of power by the professional. Thus, we can witness a proceduralization of the information which becomes an explicit rule, according to rules that set out its content and form in detail and which are qualified as mandatory by the most recent European legislation. The recent directive 2015/2302 / EU and the Legislative Decree n. 62/2018, transposing the directive into the national legal system, indicate in detail the information that must be provided in the travel contracts, as defined therein, laying down rules of mandatory nature. In this way, the legal framework paves the way, in case of violation, to contractual remedies such as “virtual” nullity , that were previously categorically excluded from the prevailing legal doctrine doctrine and case law

    Mega-parsec scale magnetic fields in low density regions in the SKA era: filaments connecting galaxy clusters and groups

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    The presence of magnetic fields in galaxy clusters has been well established in recent years, and their importance for the understanding of the physical processes at work in the Intra Cluster Medium has been recognized. Halo and relic sources have been detected in several tens clusters. A strong correlation is present between the halo and relic radio power and the X-ray luminosity. Since cluster X-Ray luminosity and mass are related, the correlation between the radio power and X-ray luminosity could derive from a physical dependence of the radio power on the cluster mass, therefore the cluster mass could be a crucial parameter in the formation of these sources. The goal of this project is to investigate the existence of non-thermal structures beyond the Mpc scale, and associated with lower density regions with respect to clusters of galaxies: galaxy filaments connecting rich clusters. We present a piece of evidence of diffuse radio emission in intergalactic filaments. Moreover, we present and discuss the detection of radio emission in galaxy groups and in faint X-Ray clusters, to analyze non-thermal properties in low density regions with physical conditions similar to galaxy filaments. We discuss how SKA1 observations will allow the investigation of this topic and the study of the presence of diffuse radio sources in low density regions. This will be a fundamental step to understand the origin and properties of cosmological magnetic fields.Comment: 9 pages, 5 figures - to appear as part of 'Cosmic Magnetism' in Proceedings 'Advancing Astrophysics with the SKA (AASKA14)', PoS(AASKA14)10

    Idiopathic Recurrent Stupor, Still an Unsolved Issue

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    We report a case of unexplained recurrent stupor for which, given the current knowledge and the lack of easily available diagnostic tools, we were unable to reach a definite diagnosis. In the patient the syndrome was associated with an ominous prognosis. Worldwide accepted and easily available proceeding method is needed to manage patients with recurrent stupor for which a toxic origin may be suppose

    Itaconic Acid Increases the Efficacy of Tobramycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

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    The search for novel therapeutics against pulmonary infections, in particular Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) biofilm infections, has been intense to deal with the emergent rise of antimicrobial resistance. Despite the numerous achievements in drug discovery and delivery strategies, only a limited number of therapeutics reach the clinic. To allow a timely preclinical development, a formulation should be highly effective, safe, and most importantly facile to produce. Thus, a simple combination of known actives that enhances the therapeutic efficacy would be a preferential choice compared to advanced drug delivery systems. In this study, we propose a novel combination of an anti-inflammatory agent—itaconic acid (itaconate, IA)—and an approved antibiotic—tobramycin (Tob) or ciprofloxacin (Cipro). The combination of Tob and IA at a molar ratio of 1:5 increased the biofilm eradicating efficacy in the strain PA14 wild type (wt) by ~4-fold compared to Tob alone. In contrast, such effect was not observed for the combination of IA with Cipro. Subsequent studies on the influence of IA on bacterial growth, pyocyanin production, and Tob biofilm penetration indicated that complexation with IA enhanced the transport of Tob through the biofilm. We recommend the simple and effective combination of Tob:IA for further testing in advanced preclinical models of PA biofilm infections

    Protective Activity of Broccoli Sprout Juice in a Human Intestinal Cell Model of Gut Inflammation

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    Benefits to health from a high consumption of fruits and vegetables are well established and have been attributed to bioactive secondary metabolites present in edible plants. However, the effects of specific health-related phytochemicals within a complex food matrix are difficult to assess. In an attempt to address this problem, we have used elicitation to improve the nutraceutical content of seedlings of Brassica oleracea grown under controlled conditions. Analysis, by LC-MS, of the glucosinolate, isothiocyanate and phenolic compound content of juices obtained from sprouts indicated that elicitation induces an enrichment of several phenolics, particularly of the anthocyanin fraction. To test the biological activity of basal and enriched juices we took advantage of a recently developed in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium. Both sprouts’ juices protected intestinal barrier integrity in Caco-2 cells exposed to tumor necrosis factor under marginal zinc deprivation, with the enriched juice showing higher protection. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that the extent of rescue from stress-induced epithelial dysfunction correlated with the composition in bioactive molecules of the juices and, in particular, with a group of phenolic compounds, including several anthocyanins, quercetin-3-Glc, cryptochlorogenic, neochlorogenic and cinnamic acids

    Statistical methods for the analysis of rotation measure grids in large scale structures in the SKA era

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    To better understand the origin and properties of cosmological magnetic fields, a detailed knowledge of magnetic fields in the large-scale structure of the Universe (galaxy clusters, filaments) is crucial. We propose a new statistical approach to study magnetic fields on large scales with the rotation measure grid data that will be obtained with the new generation of radio interferometers.Comment: 9 pages; to appear as part of 'Cosmic Magnetism' in Proceedings 'Advancing Astrophysics with the SKA (AASKA14)', PoS(AASKA14)11

    Physiological, biochemical, and biophysical characterization of the lung-lavaged spontaneously-breathing rabbit as a model for respiratory distress syndrome

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    Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is a widely accepted technique of non-invasive respiratory support in spontaneously-breathing premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Surfactant administration techniques compatible with nCPAP ventilation strategy are actively investigated. Our aim is to set up and validate a respiratory distress animal model that can be managed on nCPAP suitable for surfactant administration techniques studies. Surfactant depletion was induced by bronchoalveolar lavages (BALs) on 18 adult rabbits. Full depletion was assessed by surfactant component analysis on the BALs samples. Animals were randomized into two groups: Control group (nCPAP only) and InSurE group, consisting of a bolus of surfactant (Poractant alfa, 200 mg/kg) followed by nCPAP. Arterial blood gases were monitored until animal sacrifice, 3 hours post treatment. Lung mechanics were evaluated just before and after BALs, at the time of treatment, and at the end of the procedure. Surfactant phospholipids and protein analysis as well as surface tension measurements on sequential BALs confirmed the efficacy of the surfactant depletion procedure. The InSurE group showed a significant improvement of blood oxygenation and lung mechanics. On the contrary, no signs of recovery were appreciated in animals treated with just nCPAP. The surfactant-depleted adult rabbit RDS model proved to be a valuable and efficient preclinical tool for mimicking the clinical scenario of preterm infants affected by mild/moderate RDS who spontaneously breathe and do not require mechanical ventilation. This population is of particular interest as potential target for the non-invasive administration of surfactant

    Micro-rheological properties of lung homogenates correlate with infection severity in a mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection

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    Lung infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa pose a serious threat to patients suffering from, among others, cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or bronchiectasis, often leading to life-threatening complications. The establishment of a chronic infection is substantially related to communication between bacteria via quorum-sensing networks. In this study, we aimed to assess the role of quorum-sensing signaling molecules of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) and to investigate the viscoelastic properties of lung tissue homogenates of PA-infected mice in a prolonged acute murine infection model. Therefore, a murine infection model was successfully established via intra-tracheal infection with alginate-supplemented Pseudomonas aeruginosa NH57388A. Rheological properties of lung homogenates were analyzed with multiple particle tracking (MPT) and quorum-sensing molecules were quantified with LC–MS/MS. Statistical analysis of bacterial load and quorum-sensing molecules showed a strong correlation between these biomarkers in infected lungs. This was accompanied by noticeable changes in the consistency of lung homogenates with increasing infection severity. Furthermore, viscoelastic properties of the lung homogenates strongly correlated with bacterial load and quorum sensing molecules. Considering the strong correlation between the viscoelasticity of lung homogenates and the aforementioned biomarkers, the viscoelastic properties of infected lungs might serve as reliable new biomarker for the evaluation of the severity of P. aeruginosa infections in murine models

    Human Adipose Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells Improve Fat Transplantation Performance

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    The resorption rate of autologous fat transfer (AFT) is 40-60% of the implanted tissue, requiring new surgical strategies for tissue reconstruction. We previously demonstrated in a rabbit model that AFT may be empowered by adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (AD-MSCs), which improve graft persistence by exerting proangiogenic/anti-inflammatory effects. However, their fate after implantation requires more investigation. We report a xenograft model of adipose tissue engineering in which NOD/SCID mice underwent AFT with/without human autologous AD-MSCs and were monitored for 180 days (d). The effect of AD-MSCs on AFT grafting was also monitored by evaluating the expression of CD31 and F4/80 markers. Green fluorescent protein-positive AD-MSCs (AD-MSC-GFP) were detected in fibroblastoid cells 7 days after transplantation and in mature adipocytes at 60 days, indicating both persistence and differentiation of the implanted cells. This evidence also correlated with the persistence of a higher graft weight in AFT-AD-MSC compared to AFT alone treated mice. An observation up to 180 d revealed a lower resorption rate and reduced lipidic cyst formation in the AFT-AD-MSC group, suggesting a long-term action of AD-MSCs in support of AFT performance and an anti-inflammatory/proangiogenic activity. Together, these data indicate the protective role of adipose progenitors in autologous AFT tissue resorption