151 research outputs found

    REGIONAL TRADE BLOCS: A CASE STUDY OF THE WELFARE IMPACT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION ON INDIA AND KENYA

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    Some countries, including the big player in the world economy, the USA , believe that free trade liberalization based on principles of non discriminatory and multilateral bases as well as an open market will improve the welfare of many countries. However, other countries do not follow the idea of trade liberalization and hence respond by forming regional trading blocs. Therefore, the existence of such trading blocs will be examined, whether they are a \u27building blocks\u27 or a \u27stumbling blocks, for sustaining the free trade liberalization. And hence, this paper focuses on three main parts: rationalization of the establishment of trading blocsidentification of the critical factors for the success of these blocsand presentation of empirical evidence for the welfare implications of the trade diverting effects of the European Union through the analysis of two less developed countries, India and Kenya

    Trade liberalization and environmental standards

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    This paper examines trade liberalization and environment nexus both on the theoretical ground and using empirical evidence. The results of the study reveal that there is lack of empirical evidence to conclude that industrial or capital flight is caused mainly by the implementation of lower environmental standards in host countries. Furthermore, it can be argued that the idea to impose uniform environmental standards is unfair, particularly for developing countries. Key words: trade liberalization, environmental standards, race to the bottom hypothesis, pollution haven

    The major factors which contributed to the transformation of taiwan from a primitive agricultural society to one of the newly industrializing countries (nics) in asia

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    keywords: agricultural society, industry, manufacturin

    The Trade Of Indonesian Spice Comodities In International Market

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    This research is aimed to (1) observe the trade patterns and domination export in the spice commodities between Indonesia in international market and the countries as its main trade partners, and (2) observe the performance of the export and import in industry of Indonesia spices with its trade partner countries. Grubel-Lloyd Index (GLI) were used to detect whether the trade patterns in spice industry is as intra-industry or as inter-industry as well as to figure out the domination of the spice commodity export of Indonesia to its trade partner countries. The performance of the export and import in spice industry could be analyzed using the share of export and import between Indonesia and its trade partner countries. This research used the secondary data obtained from UNComtrade in a 15-year period (2002-2016) by concerning with a number of the main trade partner countries. The results of the research showed that the trade of Indonesian spice commodities in international market and among its main trade partners is categorized as a partial industry. Indonesia overall dominates the spice trade with its main trading partners; thus, the trade balance of Indonesian spice commodities is surplus. It is only with China and India in which the trade pattern is categorized as the intra-industry. Government needs to do some various efforts to encourage the increase of exports of Indonesian spices in the international market by developing market intelligence, enhancing the role of attachés in the spice trade diplomacy in the partner countries and potential countries

    Farmers’ Perception Of The Implementation Of Farmer Cards Policy In Klaten Regency

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    The Indonesian Farmer Cards is a government policy that aims to improve the distribution pattern of subsidized fertilizers. This study aims to determine the factors that influence farmers' perceptions of implementing the farmer card policy in the Klaten Regency. Klaten Regency was selected purposively as the research site because since the inception of Farmer Card policy, Klaten Regency has been designated as a pilot location for implementing the program. The data was collected by conducting surveys and interviews by using questionnaires. Moreover, ninety-two respondents were chosen by using a simple random sampling method. Data analysis employed the Likert scale to measure farmers' perceptions of the Farmer Card Policy. Farmers’ perceptions constituted two categories based on the weighting from the Likert scale. The first category refers to farmers that have a positive perception of the application of the Farmer Card and the second category represents farmers who have negative perceptions of the program implementation. The Likert scale in this study used to determine farmers' perceptions of the application of subsidized urea fertilizer distribution policies using farmer cards in Klaten Regency. Furthermore, logistic regression determined the factors influencing farmers' perceptions. The results showed that most farmers had positive perceptions. Four variables (experience, land area, time & convenience risk, and psychological risk) positively impact the farmers' perceptions of the Farmer Card. The other variables (urea allocation) negatively affect the farmers' perception of the Farmer Card Policy

    The Livelihood Vulnerability of Spesific Organic Rice Farmers’ Household as the Effect of Climate Change in Tanggamus Region Lampung Province

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    The study aimed to analyze the livelihood vulnerability index of both organic and non-organic rice farmers’ household as the effect of climate change. The sample was determined by a census comprising of 60 organic rice and 80 non-organic rice farmers who lived in Pematang Sawa Subdistrict, Tanggamus Region, Lampung Province. To measure the livelihood vulnerability of farmer’s household, the index of livelihood vulnerability was employed. The results showed that the organic rice farmer’s household was more vulnerable to natural disaster and climate variability, water, consumption, education, and income than that of the non-organic rice farmer’s. Meanwhile, the non-organic rice farmer’s household was more vulnerable to agriculture and food. Based on the contribution, the LVI-IPCC of non-organic rice farmer’s household was more vulnerable to climate change than that of the organic rice farmer’s. To observe the household’s vulnerability to the effect of climate change, it was better to carry the study out in some different areas far away in distance (different regions/province), by expecting that the different climate components could significantly be influential. The effort to decrease the vulnerability level of rice farmer’s household was shown by delivering some information about climate objectively and continuously, thereby encouraging the farmers to adapt the effect of climate change well. Therefore, there must be some support needed in form of resources aid programs such as irrigation system or pumping well, and some breeds useful to increase the farmers’ income, alongside their agricultural businesses. Keywords : vulnerability,  climate change, organic rice, Lampung Province

    Technical Efficiency of Beef Cattle Fattening with Self-Ownership and Partnership Systems in the Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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    One of the issues faced by the farmers of local beef cattle in Indonesia is the small ownership scale and the low rate of production which caused by several conditions, including the low efficiency of input utilisation. This matter has caused the self-ownership program of national beef to be unable to reach the expected targets. The aims of this research are: 1) to identify the factors that influence the production of beef cattle fattening business; 2) to analyze whether the farmers are already efficiently using the production factors; and 3) to analyze the technical inefficiency factors in the business of beef cattle fattening in the Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Cross section is collected from 120 self-ownership farmers and 120 partnership farmers of beef cattle. The stochastic production frontier is used to estimated production function and efficiency. The research results indicate that the variables of forage feed, concentrate feed, medicines, supplements, labour, and the frequency of extension are having significant influences towards the productions of self-ownership and partnership systems. The dummy variables of the type of livestock and the membership of livestock group also have controls towards self-ownership system; however, these two variables are not influencing the partnership system. The technical efficiency values of self-ownership system are in the range of 0.50-0.96, as for the partnership system is ranged from 0.39-0.97. Both self-ownership and partnership systems are categorised as efficient with 0.87 and 0.86 of average values. The factors that become the source of technical efficiency on partnership system are the variables of education and breeding experience, and the variable that influences both systems is farmers age. Keywords: Inefficiency, Production Function, Smallholder Farmers, Stochastic Frontier

    The Factors Influencing Tea Consumers’ Attitude in Banyumas Regency

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    Tea producers need to understand consumer perceptions of product attributes and consumer attitudes to face tough competition The large selection of products marks the lifestyle of the people in Banyumas Regency consuming tea every day. The research objective was to analyze the effect of scent, taste, brew color, brand, and price on consumer attitudes. The research locations were selected using purposive method, namely Sokaraja District and South Purwokerto Regency because they have the largest population and housing development in Banyumas Regency. The data collection through interviews with 175 tea consumer respondents was selected by convenience sampling, namely consumers who consumed black tea in packs of original tea bags and/or jasmine tea and made purchasing decisions within the household. The analytical method uses structural equation modelling to analyze the factors that influence consumer attitudes. Mostly, tea consumers are women with an average age of 43 years, are married with an undergraduate level of education, and have a household income above IDR 1,970,000. The results showed that floral scent, astringent taste, reddish brown brew color, brand popularity, and affordability price could explain consumer-perceived product attributes, and consumers' evaluation of various product choices could explain consumer attitudes. Consumer perception of taste and brand positively influences consumers. Tea producers should pay attention to consumers' perceived astringent taste of brewed tea and brand popularity because the consumer considers tea's two indicators important attributes. Keywords: consumer perceptions, tea scent, tea taste, tea brew colour, consumer attitude

    Additional Value and Business Efficiency of Various Processing Bananas Product in The Border Area of Sebatik Island

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    People who are living in banana production centers such as Sebatik Island have the opportunity to develop the products. Therefore, the purpose of this research are: (1) to know the added value from banana processing business in the border area of Sebatik Island and (2) to know the relative efficiency level of each banana processing business in the border area of Sebatik Island. The method used in this research was the added value of Hayami method which is to know the added value and the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method of CCR with input orientation which is to know the relative efficiency level of banana processing business. The study of the added value of various proceed banana in the border area of Sebatik Island showed that the banana processing commodities provided an average added value of  IDR 16,375.28 /kg. The relative efficiency analysis of 15 DMU of banana processing agroindustry showed that most of the banana processing agroindustry in the border area of Sebatik Island is not efficient yet. 40% of banana processing agroindustry is efficient and other 60% is inefficient. The average relative efficiency value of banana processing agroindustry is 0.737

    Financial Feasibility of Investing in Smallholder Cow-Calf Cooperatives in Baluran National Park

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    Livestock grazing is a major driver of human-wildlife confl ict in conservation areas. Currently, it is estimated that 3000 heads of cattle illegally grazing within Baluran National Park (BNP) in East Java. The recent research has suggested the potential of livestock system intensifi cation to reduce land-use and conflict through conservation priorities. The research goal was to investigate the fi nancial feasibility of starting intensive cow-calf cooperatives by smallholders in the BNP area. Data were collected using Farm surveys in a Criterion sampling design. Optimal herd management plans were generated using whole farm Linear Programming and fi nancial feasibility was assessed using Discounted cash-flow analysis and debt-servicing capabilities. Investment lifetime was set at 15 years and four alternative varieties of cattle were taken from Bali, Peranakan Ongole, Limousin and Simmental. Results show that investing in all varieties represents a positive investment opportunity. Bali cattle obtaining the highest NPV ($53.769), IRR (14,25%) and B/C ratio (1,13). Farmer income can be increased by 163% by combining additional Off-farm labor. However, debt servicing capabilities of cow-calf cooperative activities showed that the loan principal can only be repaid in the 10th year instead of the maximum eight years set by the government cow-calf credit scheme. We urge the government to reconsider either the grace period or the repayment time of the credit scheme to better fit the cash-fl ow characteristics of cow-calf enterprises
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