880 research outputs found

    The accessibility of research-based knowledge for nurses in United Kingdom acute care settings

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    Background. The successful dissemination of the results of the National Health Service (NHS) research and development strategy and the development of evidence based approaches to health care rely on clinicians having access to the best available evidence; evidence fit for the purpose of reducing the uncertainties associated with clinical decisions. Aim. To reveal the accessibility of those sources of information actually used by nurses, as well as those which they say they use. Design. Mixed method case site, using interview, observational, Q sort and documentary audit data in medical, surgical and coronary care units (CCUs) in three acute hospitals. Results. Three perspectives on accessibility were identified: (a) the humanist-in which human sources of information were the most accessible; (b) local information for local needs-in which locally produced resources were seen as the most accessible and (c) moving towards technology-in which information technology begins to be seen as accessible. Nurses' experience in a clinical specialty is positively associated with a perception that human sources such clinical nurse specialists, link nurses, doctors and experienced clinical colleagues are more accessible than text based sources. Clinical specialization is associated with different approaches to accessing research knowledge. Coronary care unit nurses were more likely perceive local guidelines, protocols and on-line databases as more accessible than their counterparts in general medical and surgical wards. Only a third of text-based resources available to nurses oil the wards had any explicit research base. These, and the remainder were Out of date (mean age of textbooks 11 years), and authorship hard to ascertain. Conclusion. A strategy to increase the use of research evidence by nurses should harness the influence of clinical nurse specialists, link nurses and those engaged in practice development. These roles Could act as 'conduits' through which research-based messages for practice, and information for clinical decision making, could flow. This role should be explored and enhanced

    Angular momentum I ground state probabilities of boson systems interacting by random interactions

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    In this paper we report our systematic calculations of angular momentum II ground state probabilities (P(I)P(I)) of boson systems with spin ll in the presence of random two-body interactions. It is found that the P(0) dominance is usually not true for a system with an odd number of bosons, while it is valid for an even number of bosons, which indicates that the P(0) dominance is partly connected to the even number of identical particles. It is also noticed that the P(Imax)P(I_{max})'s of bosons with spin ll do not follow the 1/N (N=l+1N=l+1, referring to the number of independent two-body matrix elements) relation. The properties of the P(I)P(I)'s obtained in boson systems with spin ll are discussed.Comment: 8 pages and 3 figure

    Number of states with fixed angular momentum for identical fermions and bosons

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    We present in this paper empirical formulas for the number of angular momentum I states for three and four identical fermions or bosons. In the cases with large I we prove that the number of states with the same M{\cal M} and n but different J is identical if I‚Č•(n‚ąí2)J‚ąí1/2(n‚ąí1)(n‚ąí2)I \ge (n-2)J - {1/2} (n-1)(n-2) for fermions and I‚Č•(n‚ąí2)JI \ge (n-2)J for bosons, and that the number of states is also identical for the same M{\cal M} but different n and J if M‚ȧ{\cal M} \le min(n, 2J+1 - n) for fermions and for M‚ȧ{\cal M} \le min(n, 2J) for bosons. Here M=Imax‚ąíI{\cal M} =I_{max}-I, n is the particle number, and J refers to the angular momentum of a single-particle orbit for fermions, or the spin L carried by bosons.Comment: 9 pages, no figure

    General pairing interactions and pair truncation approximations for fermions in a single-j shell

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    We investigate Hamiltonians with attractive interactions between pairs of fermions coupled to angular momentum J. We show that pairs with spin J are reasonable building blocks for the low-lying states. For systems with only a J = Jmax pairing interaction, eigenvalues are found to be approximately integers for a large array of states, in particular for those with total angular momenta I le 2j. For I=0 eigenstates of four fermions in a single-j shell we show that there is only one non-zero eigenvalue. We address these observations using the nucleon pair approximation of the shell model and relate our results with a number of currently interesting problems.Comment: a latex text file and 2 figures, to be publishe

    Tracking system analytic calibration activities for the Mariner Mars 1969 mission

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    Calibration activity of Deep Space Network in support of Mars encounter phase of Mariner Mars 1969 missio

    Ground state spin 0+^+ dominance of many-body systems with random interactions and related topics

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    In this talk we shall show our recent results in understanding the spinparity^{\rm parity} 0+^+ ground state (0 g.s.) dominance of many-body systems. We propose a simple approach to predict the spin II g.s. probabilities which does not require the diagonalization of a Hamiltonian with random interactions. Some findings related to the 0 g.s. dominance will also be discussed.Comment: 11 pages and 4 figure

    Geometry of random interactions

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    It is argued that spectral features of quantal systems with random interactions can be given a geometric interpretation. This conjecture is investigated in the context of two simple models: a system of randomly interacting d bosons and one of randomly interacting fermions in a j=7/2 shell. In both examples the probability for a given state to become the ground state is shown to be related to a geometric property of a polygon or polyhedron which is entirely determined by particle number, shell size, and symmetry character of the states. Extensions to more general situations are discussed
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