61 research outputs found

    ‚ÄėComplexation‚Äô of Palm Oil in Indonesia: The Actors and Their Involvement in North Mamuju, West Sulawesi

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    This research examines the complexity of many significant changes in Indonesia's palm oil (PO) industry in North Mamuju, West Sulawesi, focusing on the actors' involvement. The PO commerce in this country continues to grow due to the increasing demand for crude palm oil (CPO) and kernel palm oil (KPO), low labor costs, vast lands, tropical climate, soil conditions, as well as domestic and global demand. Furthermore, private firms and smallholders continue to dominate the OP sector with continuous growth from upstream to downstream. This suggested that the PO industry has substantially impacted and helped change the newly constituted district of West Sulawesi, North Mamuju, by applying ethnographical modes of inquiry. According to the actors, the complexity of PO industry in this region is simply driven by the dynamics of the frontier inside and beyond PO plantations zona. Secondly, they are committed to ensuring that the region continues to be a center of PO industry to stimulate economic development in Sulawesi. Empirically, investment requirements and community attractiveness to PO continue to persuade local governments that the sector is the only development path. Local actors envision North Mamuju as the future hub for PO farmers in the East Indonesian region

    Islamic Parties and the Politics of Constitutionalism in Indonesia

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    This article examines the relationship between religion and the state in Indonesia by exploring how Islam is used by political parties to shape the politics. The study shows that Islamic politics is a complementary in both nationhood and statehood in Indonesia. From the early days of the new-born nation-state, Muslims in Indonesia had played significant role in shaping the nation; nonetheless, they have never dominated the political power. Fragmentation among Muslims themselves and internal political parties is among the reason why religious (Islamic) parties failed in bringing religious identity to the state arena. Political subordination-inclusion-ignorance-confrontation is the circular game that features Islamic politics in Indonesia. The debatable issue on shari‚Äėah law, which is frequently used by Islamic parties, always becomes the core problem of the relation between Islam and the state. Even though Islam has played an important role in colouring the Indonesian politics, its existence remains complementary

    RELIGION IN FREUD’S APPROACH

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    This article aimed to examine the essence of religion by using Sigmund Freud‚Äô psychoanalysis. It looks at the Freud‚Äôs theories: ‚Äúthe ontogenic‚ÄĚ and ‚Äúthe phylogenenic‚ÄĚ. The origins of religious and belief traditions, as Freud had mapped, are neurosis, precarious future, and religion‚Äôs masculine roots. Freud‚Äôs realist approach on religion brought a controversy on the study of religion, i.e., by associating his patients and order cultural phenomena (art, literature, and philosophy). His falsification over religion mad Freud as the most controversial man in his time. For Freud, the truth-value of religious doctrines does not lie within the scope of the present enquiry. It is enough for us, as Freud asserts that we have recognized them as being, in their psychological nature, illusions. Key Words: religion, Freud, philosophy, psycho-analysis

    THE INFLUENCE OF MASS MEDIA IN POLITICAL CHANGE IN INDONESIA

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    Abstraksi Artikel ini memetakan perkembangan media massa di Indonesia. Analisa difokuskan pada peran media massa dalam menentukan proses politik di Indonesia. Argumen yang dibangun dalam tulisan adalah media massa mengalami perubahan yang cukup signifikan, akan tetapi media bukanlah ‚Äėpemain utama‚Äô dalam perubahan politik itu. Namun, media massa memberikan kontribusi penting pada perkembangan politik di Indonesia. Key word: mass media, politics, political change, Indonesia

    Kajang; a Picture of Modesty: an Indonesian Local Belief

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    The unique of Kajang ethnic is interesting to be studied by different disciplines. Their belief on the messages stated in √Ę‚ā¨ŇďPasanga ri Kajang√Ę‚ā¨ drive their step in running their life simply and wisely. This paper explores the community of Kajang and their religious beliefs and values. The importance of the Pasanga ri Kajang and the existence of Ammatoa as they believe as the messenger are two things that maintain their strong values and believes. Although they claimed to be Muslims, their religious practices are much different with general Muslims. They believe that √Ę‚ā¨Ňďje√Ę‚ā¨‚ĄĘne temmapettu; sembayang tellara,√Ę‚ā¨ which is meant, more or less, √Ę‚ā¨Ňďunbreaka-ble ritual ablution and a never ending prayers√Ę‚ā¨ as more important than the ritual religious practice. The concept is not primarily by the principles of Islam, but rather it is based on their attitudes and behaviors of daily life on traditional teachings supporting practices, such as √Ę‚ā¨Ňďkalumbusuang√Ę‚ā¨ (honesty); √Ę‚ā¨Ňďgattang√Ę‚ā¨ (consistency); √Ę‚ā¨Ňďsabbara√Ę‚ā¨ (patience); and √Ę‚ā¨Ňďappisona√Ę‚ā¨ (sincerity).&nbsp

    Heterobasidion ‚Äď conifer pathosystem : Host mycobiome and evaluation of potential resistance markers

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    Forests are the hotspots of Earth‚Äôs biodiversity, providing habitats to animals and resources to humans, protecting watersheds, preventing soil degradation, and mitigating climate change. In fact, forest disturbance is mainly caused by biotic and abiotic stresses, which affect both the primary metabolic components required for growth, development, and reproduction and secondary metabolites (defense-related chemical compounds) of trees. In the Northern Hemisphere, including Finland, members of the fungal group Heterobasidion annosum species complex are the most important pathogens of conifer trees causing serious economic losses for forest industries. The existing control and management strategies against this pathogen do not lead to 100% protection. To gain better insights and knowledge of Heterobasidion‚Äďconifer tree interactions, I investigated the impact of pathogen infection on the resident mycobiota in naturally infected trees as well as performed an analysis of fungal community structure under field conditions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis was also performed to discriminate between asymptomatic and symptomatic trees. In a parallel study, I investigated the genetic variants that could be associated with the control of necrotic lesions caused by H. parviporum inoculation among selected clonal lines of Norway spruce. Additionally, the expression level of a subset of selected genes involved in terpene, stilbene and flavonoid biosynthesis and programmed cell death in Scots pine trees with varying levels of resistance was further assessed. Mycobiome analysis demonstrated significant differences in the structure of fungal communities residing within symptomatic and asymptomatic Norway spruce trees. The results provided novel insight into the interactions between fungal plant pathogens and resident plant mycobiota. The FT-IR spectroscopy analysis was able to discriminate between symptomatic and asymptomatic Heterobasidion-infected Norway spruce trees. Other findings in terms of genetic and chemical markers revealed ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with eight genes. The identified SNPs were significantly associated with larger lesions in response to H. parviporum inoculation in Norway spruce saplings. In Scots pine, genes with higher expression levels predicted to encode őĪ-pinene synthase, geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPPS), and metacaspase 5 (MC5) were associated with trees exhibiting high levels of necrotic lesion formation in response to fungal inoculation. Concentrations of two terpenoid compounds (ő≤-caryophyllene and őĪ-humulene) were significantly negatively correlated with lesion size. These results can be used in further studies to elucidate potential biomarkers in conifer tree genetic resistance research. Keywords: Heterobasidion, Norway spruce, Scots pine, tree-pathogen interactions, mycobiome analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, gene expression, terpenoid, chemical markersJuurik√§√§v√§n ja havupuiden vuorovaikutus: puiden sieniyhteis√∂t ja taudinkest√§vyyden merkkiominaisuudet Juurik√§√§v√§t (Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato) ovat taudinaiheuttajia, jotka lahottavat kasvatettavia puita. N√§m√§ sienet aiheuttavat siten mets√§nkasvatukselle mittavia tappioita Suomessa ja koko pohjoisella pallonpuoliskolla. Nykyiset mets√§nhoito- ja torjuntamenetelm√§t eiv√§t riit√§ taudin torjumiseksi. My√∂s puiden ja juurik√§√§v√§n vuorovaikutus tunnetaan yh√§ huonosti. Tutkin v√§it√∂skirjassani juurik√§√§v√§n vaikutusta luontaisesti tartunnan saaneiden puiden sieniyhteis√∂ihin ja analysoin my√∂s puiden sieniyhteis√∂jen rakennetta. Oireettomien ja juurik√§√§v√§n lahottamien puiden erottamista toisistaan tutkittiin FT-IR-spektroskopialla (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy). Ty√∂ss√§ kartoitettiin my√∂s kuusen kloonitaimien v√§lisi√§ perinn√∂llisi√§ taudinkest√§vyyseroja tutkimalla niiden kyky√§ vastustaa juurik√§√§v√§n aiheuttamaa solukuolemaa. M√§nty-yksil√∂iden v√§listen kest√§vyyserojen taustaa tutkitiin vertailemalla terpeenien, stillbeenien, flavonoidien ja ohjelmoitua solukuolemaa s√§√§televien geenien ekspressiota. Sieniyhteis√∂jen erot oireettomien ja lahovikaisten puiden v√§lill√§ olivat tilastollisesti merkitsevi√§. Tutkimus toi runsaasti uutta tietoa taudinaiheuttajien ja muun sieniyhteis√∂n vuorovaikutuksesta. Oireettomat ja lahovikaiset puut pystyttiin erottamaan toisistaan FT-IR spektroskopialla. Juurik√§√§v√§n rihmastotartunta aiheutti eniten oireita kuusiklooneissa, joiden perim√§st√§ l√∂ydettiin kymmenen geenimerkki√§ (SNP), jotka kytkeytyiv√§t kahdeksaan geeniin. Sienirihmaston tartunnan aiheuttamat oireet olivat voimakkaimpia m√§nnyiss√§, jotka reagoivat lis√§√§m√§ll√§ őĪ-pineenisyntaasiin, geranyylidifosfaattisyntaasiin (GPPS) ja metakaspaasi 5:n (MC5) liittyvien geenien ekspressiota, Kahden terpenoidiyhdisteen (ő≤-karyofylleeni and őĪ-humuleeni) pitoisuus korreloi negatiivisesti oireiden voimakkuuden kanssa. Ty√∂n tulokset ovat hy√∂dyksi etsitt√§ess√§ merkkiominaisuuksia, joiden avulla havupuiden perinn√∂llist√§ taudinkest√§vyytt√§ voitaisiin kartoittaa tulevaisuudessa. Avainsanat: Heterobasidion, juurik√§√§p√§, kuusi, m√§nty, vuorovaikutus, sieniyhteis√∂t, FT-IR spektroskopia, ,geeniekspressio, terpenoidit, kemialliset merkkiominaisuude

    Frontier formation in an Indonesian resource site

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    This article examines the role of transmigration in the formation of a frontier in the Indonesian province of Sulawesi. The "KTM" (Kawasan Terpadu Mandiri ‚Äď Integrated and Self-Sustained Settlement) initiative, which is funded by the government, provides the primary context. Using ethnographic methods, we identify the first Bugis migration in Indonesia that was funded by the government. The Bugis who settled in Baras were the only ones for whom the state had any involvement in the planning, sponsorship, or endorsement of their relocation from other locations like Sumatra or Kalimantan. We argue that the KTM of Baras has evolved from an agricultural frontier to an economic frontier and, most recently, a frontier focussed on the core issues of political ecology. This focus has arisen because the settlement has taken on the characteristics of an intersection of various types of frontiers. Empirically, this intersection of frontier and the oil palm industry have contributed to transforming the north-western region of Sulawesi
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