540 research outputs found

    Cosmological perturbations in massive gravity with doubly coupled matter

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    We investigate the cosmological perturbations around FLRW solutions to non- linear massive gravity with a new effective coupling to matter proposed recently. Unlike the case with minimal matter coupling, all five degrees of freedom in the gravity sector propagate on generic self-accelerating FLRW backgrounds. We study the stability of the cosmological solutions and put constraints on the parameters of the theory by demanding the correct sign for the kinetic terms for scalar, vector and tensor perturbations

    Models for the Brane-Bulk Interaction: Toward Understanding Braneworld Cosmological Perturbation

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    Using some simple toy models, we explore the nature of the brane-bulk interaction for cosmological models with a large extra dimension. We are in particular interested in understanding the role of the bulk gravitons, which from the point of view of an observer on the brane will appear to generate dissipation and nonlocality, effects which cannot be incorporated into an effective (3+1)-dimensional Lagrangian field theoretic description. We explicitly work out the dynamics of several discrete systems consisting of a finite number of degrees of freedom on the boundary coupled to a (1+1)-dimensional field theory subject to a variety of wave equations. Systems both with and without time translation invariance are considered and moving boundaries are discussed as well. The models considered contain all the qualitative feature of quantized linearized cosmological perturbations for a Randall-Sundrum universe having an arbitrary expansion history, with the sole exception of gravitational gauge invariance, which will be treated in a later paper.Comment: 47 pages, RevTeX (or Latex, etc) with 5 eps figure

    Brane gravity, higher derivative terms and non-locality

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    In brane world scenarios with a bulk scalar field between two branes it is known that 4-dimensional Einstein gravity is restored at low energies on either brane. By using a gauge-invariant gravitational and scalar perturbation formalism we extend the theory of weak gravity in the brane world scenarios to higher energies, or shorter distances. We argue that weak gravity on either brane is indistinguishable from 4-dimensional higher derivative gravity, provided that the inter-brane distance (radion) is stabilized, that the background bulk scalar field is changing near the branes and that the background bulk geometry near the branes is warped. This argument holds for a general conformal transformation to a frame in which matter on the branes is minimally coupled to the metric. In particular, Newton's constant and the coefficients of curvature-squared terms in the 4-dimensional effective action are determined up to an ambiguity of adding a Gauss-Bonnet topological term. In other words, we provide the brane-world realization of the so called R2R^2-model without utilizing a quantum theory. We discuss the appearance of composite spin-2 and spin-0 fields in addition to the graviton on the brane and point out a possibility that the spin-0 field may play the role of an effective inflaton to drive brane-world inflation. Finally, we conjecture that the sequence of higher derivative terms is an infinite series and, thus, indicates non-locality in the brane world scenarios.Comment: Latex, 18 pages; a comment on the spurious tensor mode was added; recovery condition of higher derivative gravity clarifie

    Horava-Lifshitz Cosmology: A Review

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    This article reviews basic construction and cosmological implications of a power-counting renormalizable theory of gravitation recently proposed by Horava. We explain that (i) at low energy this theory does not exactly recover general relativity but instead mimic general relativity plus dark matter; that (ii) higher spatial curvature terms allow bouncing and cyclic universes as regular solutions; and that (iii) the anisotropic scaling with the dynamical critical exponent z=3 solves the horizon problem and leads to scale-invariant cosmological perturbations even without inflation. We also comment on issues related to an extra scalar degree of freedom called scalar graviton. In particular, for spherically-symmetric, static, vacuum configurations we prove non-perturbative continuity of the lambda->1+0 limit, where lambda is a parameter in the kinetic action and general relativity has the value lambda=1. We also derive the condition under which linear instability of the scalar graviton does not show up.Comment: 28 pages, invited review for CQG; version to be published (v2

    Scaling solution, radion stabilization, and initial condition for brane-world cosmology

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    We propose a new, self-consistent and dynamical scenario which gives rise to well-defined initial conditions for five-dimensional brane-world cosmologies with radion stabilization. At high energies, the five-dimensional effective theory is assumed to have a scale invariance so that it admits an expanding scaling solution as a future attractor. The system automatically approaches the scaling solution and, hence, the initial condition for the subsequent low-energy brane cosmology is set by the scaling solution. At low energies, the scale invariance is broken and a radion stabilization mechanism drives the dynamics of the brane-world system. We present an exact, analytic scaling solution for a class of scale-invariant effective theories of five-dimensional brane-world models which includes the five-dimensional reduction of the Horava-Witten theory, and provide convincing evidence that the scaling solution is a future attractor.Comment: 17 pages; version accepted for PRD, references adde

    Measurement of Parity Violation in the Early Universe using Gravitational-wave Detectors

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    A stochastic gravitational-wave background (SGWB) is expected to arise from the superposition of many independent and unresolved gravitational-wave signals, of either cosmological or astrophysical origin. Some cosmological models (characterized, for instance, by a pseudo-scalar inflaton, or by some modification of gravity) break parity, leading to a polarized SGWB. We present a new technique to measure this parity violation, which we then apply to the recent results from LIGO to produce the first upper limit on parity violation in the SGWB, assuming a generic power-law SGWB spectrum across the LIGO sensitive frequency region. We also estimate sensitivity to parity violation of the future generations of gravitational-wave detectors, both for a power-law spectrum and for a model of axion inflation. This technique offers a new way of differentiating between the cosmological and astrophysical sources of the isotropic SGWB, as astrophysical sources are not expected to produce a polarized SGWB.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures, 1 tabl
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