112 research outputs found

### Semiholography for heavy ion collisions

The formation of QGP in heavy ion collisions gives us a great opportunity for
learning about nonperturbative dynamics of QCD. Semiholography provides a new
consistent framework to combine perturbative and non-perturbative effects in a
coherent way and can be applied to obtain an effective description for heavy
ion collisions. In particular, it allows us to include nonperturbative effects
in existing glasma effective theory and QCD kinetic theory for the weakly
coupled saturated degrees of freedom liberated by the collisions in the initial
stages in a consistent manner. We argue why the full framework should be able
to confront experiments with only a few phenomenological parameters and present
feasibility tests for the necessary numerical computations. Furthermore, we
discuss that semiholography leads to a new description of collective flow in
the form of a generalised non-Newtonian fluid. We discuss some open questions
which we hope to answer in the near future.Comment: 12 pages; 3 figures; Proceedings of Confinement XII @ Thessaloniki,
Greece -- August 28 to September 4, 201

### Phenomenological characterisation of semi-holographic non-Fermi liquids

We analyse some phenomenological implications of the most general
semi-holographic models for non-Fermi liquids that have emerged with inputs
from the holographic correspondence. We find generalizations of Landau-Silin
equations with few parameters governing thermodynamics, low energy response and
collective excitations. We show that even when there is a Fermi surface with
well-defined quasi-particle excitations, the collective excitations can behave
very differently from Landau's theory.Comment: 5+5 pages, 3 figures, expanded supplementary material, published
versio

### Holography as a highly efficient RG flow II: An explicit construction

We complete the reformulation of the holographic correspondence as a
\emph{highly efficient RG flow} that can also determine the UV data in the
field theory in the strong coupling and large $N$ limit. We introduce a special
way to define operators at any given scale in terms of appropriate
coarse-grained collective variables, without requiring the use of the
elementary fields. The Wilsonian construction is generalised by promoting the
cut-off to a functional of these collective variables. We impose three criteria
to determine the coarse-graining. The first criterion is that the effective
Ward identities for local conservation of energy, momentum, etc. should
preserve their standard forms, but in new scale-dependent background metric and
sources which are functionals of the effective single trace operators. The
second criterion is that the scale-evolution equations of the operators in the
actual background metric should be state-independent, implying that the
collective variables should not explicitly appear in them. The final criterion
is that the endpoint of the scale-evolution of the RG flow can be transformed
to a fixed point corresponding to familiar non-relativistic equations with a
finite number of parameters, such as incompressible non-relativistic
Navier-Stokes, under a certain universal rescaling of the scale and of the time
coordinate. Using previous work, we explicitly show that in the hydrodynamic
limit each such highly efficient RG flow reproduces a unique classical gravity
theory with precise UV data that satisfy our IR criterion. We obtain the
explicit coarse-graining which reproduces Einstein's equations. In a simple
example, we are also able to compute the beta function. Finally, we show how
our construction can be interpolated with the traditional Wilsonian RG flow at
a suitable scale, and can be used to develop new non-perturbative frameworks
for QCD-like theories.Comment: 1+59 pages; Introduction slightly expanded, Section V on beta
function in highly efficient RG flow added, version accepted in PR

### Spacetime emergence via holographic RG flow from incompressible Navier-Stokes at the horizon

We show that holographic RG flow can be defined precisely such that it
corresponds to emergence of spacetime. We consider the case of pure Einstein's
gravity with a negative cosmological constant in the dual hydrodynamic regime.
The holographic RG flow is a system of first order differential equations for
radial evolution of the energy-momentum tensor and the variables which
parametrize it's phenomenological form on hypersurfaces in a foliation. The RG
flow can be constructed without explicit knowledge of the bulk metric provided
the hypersurface foliation is of a special kind. The bulk metric can be
reconstructed once the RG flow equations are solved. We show that the full
spacetime can be determined from the RG flow by requiring that the horizon
fluid is a fixed point in a certain scaling limit leading to the
non-relativistic incompressible Navier-Stokes dynamics. This restricts the
near-horizon forms of all transport coefficients, which are thus determined
independently of their asymptotic values and the RG flow can be solved
uniquely. We are therefore able to recover the known boundary values of almost
all transport coefficients at the first and second orders in the derivative
expansion. We conjecture that the complete characterisation of the general
holographic RG flow, including the choice of counterterms, might be determined
from the hydrodynamic regime.Comment: 61 pages, 2 figures, 5 tables; matches with JHEP versio

### On the universal hydrodynamics of strongly coupled CFTs with gravity duals

It is known that the solutions of pure classical 5D gravity with $AdS_5$
asymptotics can describe strongly coupled large N dynamics in a universal
sector of 4D conformal gauge theories. We show that when the boundary metric is
flat we can uniquely specify the solution by the boundary stress tensor. We
also show that in the Fefferman-Graham coordinates all these solutions have an
integer Taylor series expansion in the radial coordinate (i.e. no $log$ terms).
Specifying an arbitrary stress tensor can lead to two types of pathologies, it
can either destroy the asymptotic AdS boundary condition or it can produce
naked singularities. We show that when solutions have no net angular momentum,
all hydrodynamic stress tensors preserve the asymptotic AdS boundary condition,
though they may produce naked singularities. We construct solutions
corresponding to arbitrary hydrodynamic stress tensors in Fefferman-Graham
coordinates using a derivative expansion. In contrast to Eddington-Finkelstein
coordinates here the constraint equations simplify and at each order it is
manifestly Lorentz covariant. The regularity analysis, becomes more elaborate,
but we can show that there is a unique hydrodynamic stress tensor which gives
us solutions free of naked singularities. In the process we write down explicit
first order solutions in both Fefferman-Graham and Eddington-Finkelstein
coordinates for hydrodynamic stress tensors with arbitrary $\eta/s$. Our
solutions can describe arbitrary (slowly varying) velocity configurations. We
point out some field-theoretic implications of our general results.Comment: 39 pages, two appendices added, in appendix A the proof of the power
series solution has been detailed, in appendix B, we have commented on method
of fixing $\eta/s$ by calculating curvature invariant

### Artificial Intelligence for Emergency Response

Emergency response management (ERM) is a challenge faced by communities
across the globe. First responders must respond to various incidents, such as
fires, traffic accidents, and medical emergencies. They must respond quickly to
incidents to minimize the risk to human life. Consequently, considerable
attention has been devoted to studying emergency incidents and response in the
last several decades. In particular, data-driven models help reduce human and
financial loss and improve design codes, traffic regulations, and safety
measures. This tutorial paper explores four sub-problems within emergency
response: incident prediction, incident detection, resource allocation, and
resource dispatch. We aim to present mathematical formulations for these
problems and broad frameworks for each problem. We also share open-source
(synthetic) data from a large metropolitan area in the USA for future work on
data-driven emergency response.Comment: This is a pre-print for a book chapter to appear in Vorobeychik,
Yevgeniy., and Mukhopadhyay, Ayan., (Eds.). (2023). \textit{Artificial
Intelligence and Society}. ACM Pres

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