112 research outputs found

    Semiholography for heavy ion collisions

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    The formation of QGP in heavy ion collisions gives us a great opportunity for learning about nonperturbative dynamics of QCD. Semiholography provides a new consistent framework to combine perturbative and non-perturbative effects in a coherent way and can be applied to obtain an effective description for heavy ion collisions. In particular, it allows us to include nonperturbative effects in existing glasma effective theory and QCD kinetic theory for the weakly coupled saturated degrees of freedom liberated by the collisions in the initial stages in a consistent manner. We argue why the full framework should be able to confront experiments with only a few phenomenological parameters and present feasibility tests for the necessary numerical computations. Furthermore, we discuss that semiholography leads to a new description of collective flow in the form of a generalised non-Newtonian fluid. We discuss some open questions which we hope to answer in the near future.Comment: 12 pages; 3 figures; Proceedings of Confinement XII @ Thessaloniki, Greece -- August 28 to September 4, 201

    Phenomenological characterisation of semi-holographic non-Fermi liquids

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    We analyse some phenomenological implications of the most general semi-holographic models for non-Fermi liquids that have emerged with inputs from the holographic correspondence. We find generalizations of Landau-Silin equations with few parameters governing thermodynamics, low energy response and collective excitations. We show that even when there is a Fermi surface with well-defined quasi-particle excitations, the collective excitations can behave very differently from Landau's theory.Comment: 5+5 pages, 3 figures, expanded supplementary material, published versio

    Holography as a highly efficient RG flow II: An explicit construction

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    We complete the reformulation of the holographic correspondence as a \emph{highly efficient RG flow} that can also determine the UV data in the field theory in the strong coupling and large NN limit. We introduce a special way to define operators at any given scale in terms of appropriate coarse-grained collective variables, without requiring the use of the elementary fields. The Wilsonian construction is generalised by promoting the cut-off to a functional of these collective variables. We impose three criteria to determine the coarse-graining. The first criterion is that the effective Ward identities for local conservation of energy, momentum, etc. should preserve their standard forms, but in new scale-dependent background metric and sources which are functionals of the effective single trace operators. The second criterion is that the scale-evolution equations of the operators in the actual background metric should be state-independent, implying that the collective variables should not explicitly appear in them. The final criterion is that the endpoint of the scale-evolution of the RG flow can be transformed to a fixed point corresponding to familiar non-relativistic equations with a finite number of parameters, such as incompressible non-relativistic Navier-Stokes, under a certain universal rescaling of the scale and of the time coordinate. Using previous work, we explicitly show that in the hydrodynamic limit each such highly efficient RG flow reproduces a unique classical gravity theory with precise UV data that satisfy our IR criterion. We obtain the explicit coarse-graining which reproduces Einstein's equations. In a simple example, we are also able to compute the beta function. Finally, we show how our construction can be interpolated with the traditional Wilsonian RG flow at a suitable scale, and can be used to develop new non-perturbative frameworks for QCD-like theories.Comment: 1+59 pages; Introduction slightly expanded, Section V on beta function in highly efficient RG flow added, version accepted in PR

    Spacetime emergence via holographic RG flow from incompressible Navier-Stokes at the horizon

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    We show that holographic RG flow can be defined precisely such that it corresponds to emergence of spacetime. We consider the case of pure Einstein's gravity with a negative cosmological constant in the dual hydrodynamic regime. The holographic RG flow is a system of first order differential equations for radial evolution of the energy-momentum tensor and the variables which parametrize it's phenomenological form on hypersurfaces in a foliation. The RG flow can be constructed without explicit knowledge of the bulk metric provided the hypersurface foliation is of a special kind. The bulk metric can be reconstructed once the RG flow equations are solved. We show that the full spacetime can be determined from the RG flow by requiring that the horizon fluid is a fixed point in a certain scaling limit leading to the non-relativistic incompressible Navier-Stokes dynamics. This restricts the near-horizon forms of all transport coefficients, which are thus determined independently of their asymptotic values and the RG flow can be solved uniquely. We are therefore able to recover the known boundary values of almost all transport coefficients at the first and second orders in the derivative expansion. We conjecture that the complete characterisation of the general holographic RG flow, including the choice of counterterms, might be determined from the hydrodynamic regime.Comment: 61 pages, 2 figures, 5 tables; matches with JHEP versio

    On the universal hydrodynamics of strongly coupled CFTs with gravity duals

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    It is known that the solutions of pure classical 5D gravity with AdS5AdS_5 asymptotics can describe strongly coupled large N dynamics in a universal sector of 4D conformal gauge theories. We show that when the boundary metric is flat we can uniquely specify the solution by the boundary stress tensor. We also show that in the Fefferman-Graham coordinates all these solutions have an integer Taylor series expansion in the radial coordinate (i.e. no loglog terms). Specifying an arbitrary stress tensor can lead to two types of pathologies, it can either destroy the asymptotic AdS boundary condition or it can produce naked singularities. We show that when solutions have no net angular momentum, all hydrodynamic stress tensors preserve the asymptotic AdS boundary condition, though they may produce naked singularities. We construct solutions corresponding to arbitrary hydrodynamic stress tensors in Fefferman-Graham coordinates using a derivative expansion. In contrast to Eddington-Finkelstein coordinates here the constraint equations simplify and at each order it is manifestly Lorentz covariant. The regularity analysis, becomes more elaborate, but we can show that there is a unique hydrodynamic stress tensor which gives us solutions free of naked singularities. In the process we write down explicit first order solutions in both Fefferman-Graham and Eddington-Finkelstein coordinates for hydrodynamic stress tensors with arbitrary η/s\eta/s. Our solutions can describe arbitrary (slowly varying) velocity configurations. We point out some field-theoretic implications of our general results.Comment: 39 pages, two appendices added, in appendix A the proof of the power series solution has been detailed, in appendix B, we have commented on method of fixing η/s\eta/s by calculating curvature invariant

    Artificial Intelligence for Emergency Response

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    Emergency response management (ERM) is a challenge faced by communities across the globe. First responders must respond to various incidents, such as fires, traffic accidents, and medical emergencies. They must respond quickly to incidents to minimize the risk to human life. Consequently, considerable attention has been devoted to studying emergency incidents and response in the last several decades. In particular, data-driven models help reduce human and financial loss and improve design codes, traffic regulations, and safety measures. This tutorial paper explores four sub-problems within emergency response: incident prediction, incident detection, resource allocation, and resource dispatch. We aim to present mathematical formulations for these problems and broad frameworks for each problem. We also share open-source (synthetic) data from a large metropolitan area in the USA for future work on data-driven emergency response.Comment: This is a pre-print for a book chapter to appear in Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy., and Mukhopadhyay, Ayan., (Eds.). (2023). \textit{Artificial Intelligence and Society}. ACM Pres