83 research outputs found

    Strong interactions in alkaline-earth Rydberg ensembles

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    Ultra-cold atoms in optical lattices provide a versatile and robust platform to study fundamental condensed-matter physics problems and have applications in quantum optics as well as quantum information processing. For many of these applications, Rydberg atoms (atoms excited to large principal quantum numbers) are ideal due to its long coherence times and strong interactions. However, one of the pre-requisite for such applications is identical confinement of ground state atoms with Rydberg atoms. This is challenging for conventionally used alkali atoms. In this thesis, I discuss the potential of using alkaline-earth Rydberg atoms for many-body physics by implementing simultaneous trapping for the relevant internal states. In particular, I consider a scheme for generating multi-particle entanglement and explore charge transport in a one dimensional atomic lattice

    Accessing Rydberg-dressed interactions using many-body Ramsey dynamics

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    We demonstrate that Ramsey spectroscopy can be used to observe Rydberg-dressed interactions. In contrast to many prior proposals, our scheme operates comfortably within experimentally measured lifetimes, and accesses a regime where quantum superpositions are crucial. The key idea is to build a spin-1/2 from one level that is Rydberg-dressed and another that is not. These levels may be hyperfine or long-lived electronic states. An Ising spin model governs the Ramsey dynamics, for which we derive an exact solution. Due to the structure of Rydberg interactions, the dynamics differs significantly from that in other spin systems. As one example, spin echo can increase the rate at which coherence decays. The results also apply to bare (undressed) Rydberg states as a special case, for which we quantitatively reproduce recent ultrafast experiments without fitting

    Solitons explore the quantum classical boundary

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    It is an open fundamental question how the classical appearance of our environment arises from the underlying quantum many-body theory. We propose that the quantum-classical boundary can be probed in collisions of bright solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates, where thousands of atoms form a large compound object at ultra cold temperatures. We show that these collisions exhibit intricate many-body quantum behavior, invalidating mean field theory. Prior to collision, solitons can loose their well defined quantum phase relation through phase diffusion, essentially caused by atom number fluctuations. This dephasing should typically render the subsequent dynamics more classical. Instead, we find that it opens the door for a tremendous proliferation of mesoscopic entanglement: After collision the two solitons find themselves in a superposition state of various constituent atom numbers, positions and velocities, in which all these quantities are entangled with those of the collision partner. As the solitons appear to traverse the quantum-classical boundary back and forth during their scattering process, they emerge as natural probe of mesoscopic quantum coherence and decoherence phenomena.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figure

    Ultracold nonreactive molecules in an optical lattice: connecting chemistry to many-body physics

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    We derive effective lattice models for ultracold bosonic or fermionic nonreactive molecules (NRMs) in an optical lattice, analogous to the Hubbard model that describes ultracold atoms in a lattice. In stark contrast to the Hubbard model, which is commonly assumed to accurately describe NRMs, we find that the single on-site interaction parameter UU is replaced by a multi-channel interaction, whose properties we elucidate. The complex, multi-channel collisional physics is unrelated to dipolar interactions, and so occurs even in the absence of an electric field or for homonuclear molecules. We find a crossover between coherent few-channel models and fully incoherent single-channel models as the lattice depth is increased. We show that the effective model parameters can be determined in lattice modulation experiments, which consequently measure molecular collision dynamics with a vastly sharper energy resolution than experiments in an ultracold gas.Comment: 4 pages+refs, 3 figures; 2.5 pages+1 figure Supplemental Materia

    Quantum simulation of long range XY quantum spin glass with strong area-law violation using trapped ions

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    Ground states of local Hamiltonians are known to obey the entanglement entropy area law. While area law violation of a mild kind (logarithmic) is commonly encountered, strong area-law violation (more than logarithmic) is rare. In this paper, we study the long range quantum spin glass in one dimension whose couplings are disordered and fall off with distance as a power-law. We show that this system exhibits more than logarithmic area law violation in its ground state. Strikingly this feature is found to be true even in the short range regime in sharp contrast to the spinless long range disordered fermionic model. This necessitates the study of large systems for the quantum XY spin glass model which is challenging since these numerical methods depend on the validity of the area law. This situation lends itself naturally for the exploration of a quantum simulation approach. We present a proof-of-principle implementation of this non-trivially interacting spin model using trapped ions and provide a detailed study of experimentally realistic parameters.Comment: 10 pages, 6 figure

    Exploring Disordered Quantum Spin Models with a Multi-Layer Multi-Configurational Approach

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    Numerical simulations of quantum spin models are crucial for a profound understanding of many-body phenomena in a variety of research areas in physics. An outstanding problem is the availability of methods to tackle systems that violate area-laws of entanglement entropy. Such scenarios cover a wide range of compelling physical situations including disordered quantum spin systems among others. In this work, we employ a numerical technique referred to as multi-layer multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree (ML-MCTDH) to evaluate the ground state of several disordered spin models. ML-MCTDH has previously been used to study problems of high-dimensional quantum dynamics in molecular and ultracold physics but is here applied to study spin systems for the first time. We exploit the inherent flexibility of the method to present results in one and two spatial dimensions and treat challenging setups that incorporate long-range interactions as well as disorder. Our results suggest that the hierarchical multi-layering inherent to ML-MCTDH allows to tackle a wide range of quantum many-body problems such as spin dynamics of varying dimensionality.Comment: 13 pages, 5 figure

    Microscopic derivation of multi-channel Hubbard models for ultracold nonreactive molecules in an optical lattice

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    Recent experimental advances in the cooling and manipulation of bialkali dimer molecules have enabled the production of gases of ultracold molecules that are not chemically reactive. It has been presumed in the literature that in the absence of an electric field the low-energy scattering of such nonreactive molecules (NRMs) will be similar to atoms, in which a single ss-wave scattering length governs the collisional physics. However, in Ref. [1], it was argued that the short-range collisional physics of NRMs is much more complex than for atoms, and that this leads to a many-body description in terms of a multi-channel Hubbard model. In this work, we show that this multi-channel Hubbard model description of NRMs in an optical lattice is robust against the approximations employed in Ref. [1] to estimate its parameters. We do so via an exact, albeit formal, derivation of a multi-channel resonance model for two NRMs from an ab initio description of the molecules in terms of their constituent atoms. We discuss the regularization of this two-body multi-channel resonance model in the presence of a harmonic trap, and how its solutions form the basis for the many-body model of Ref. [1]. We also generalize the derivation of the effective lattice model to include multiple internal states (e.g., rotational or hyperfine). We end with an outlook to future research.Comment: 19 pages, 4 figure
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