1,591 research outputs found

    Long-range correlations and ensemble inequivalence in a generalized ABC model

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    A generalization of the ABC model, a one-dimensional model of a driven system of three particle species with local dynamics, is introduced, in which the model evolves under either (i) density-conserving or (ii) nonconserving dynamics. For equal average densities of the three species, both dynamical models are demonstrated to exhibit detailed balance with respect to a Hamiltonian with long-range interactions. The model is found to exhibit two distinct phase diagrams, corresponding to the canonical (density-conserving) and grand canonical (density nonconserving) ensembles, as expected in long-range interacting systems. The implication of this result to nonequilibrium steady states, such as those of the ABC model with unequal average densities, are briefly discussed.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures. v2: minor changes with an added reference, published versio

    Supercoil formation in DNA denaturation

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    We generalize the Poland-Scheraga (PS) model to the case of a circular DNA, taking into account the twisting of the two strains around each other. Guided by recent single-molecule experiments on DNA strands, we assume that the torsional stress induced by denaturation enforces formation of supercoils whose writhe absorbs the linking number expelled by the loops. Our model predicts that, when the entropy parameter of a loop satisfies c2c \le 2, denaturation transition does not take place. On the other hand for c>2c>2 a first-order denaturation transition is consistent with our model and may take place in the actual system, as in the case with no supercoils. These results are in contrast with other treatments of circular DNA melting where denaturation is assumed to be accompanied by an increase in twist rather than writhe on the bound segments.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures, accepted for publication in PRE Rapid Com

    Cascading and Local-Field Effects in Non-Linear Optics Revisited; A Quantum-Field Picture Based on Exchange of Photons

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    The semi-classical theory of radiation-matter coupling misses local-field effects that may alter the pulse time-ordering and cascading that leads to the generation of new signals. These are then introduced macroscopically by solving Maxwell's equations. This procedure is convenient and intuitive but ad hoc. We show that both effects emerge naturally by including coupling to quantum modes of the radiation field in the vacuum state to second order. This approach is systematic and suggests a more general class of corrections that only arise in a QED framework. In the semi-classical theory, which only includes classical field modes, the susceptibility of a collection of NN non-interacting molecules is additive and scales as NN. Second-order coupling to a vacuum mode generates an effective retarded interaction that leads to cascading and local field effects both of which scale as N2N^2

    Slow Coarsening in a Class of Driven Systems

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    The coarsening process in a class of driven systems is studied. These systems have previously been shown to exhibit phase separation and slow coarsening in one dimension. We consider generalizations of this class of models to higher dimensions. In particular we study a system of three types of particles that diffuse under local conserving dynamics in two dimensions. Arguments and numerical studies are presented indicating that the coarsening process in any number of dimensions is logarithmically slow in time. A key feature of this behavior is that the interfaces separating the various growing domains are smooth (well approximated by a Fermi function). This implies that the coarsening mechanism in one dimension is readily extendible to higher dimensions.Comment: submitted to EPJB, 13 page

    Many-body Green's function approach to attosecond nonlinear X-ray spectroscopy

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    Closed expressions are derived for resonant multidimensional X-ray spectroscopy using the quasiparticle nonlinear exciton representation of optical response. This formalism is applied to predict coherent four wave mixing signals which probe single and two core-hole states. Nonlinear X-ray signals are compactly expressed in terms of one- and two- particle Green's functions which can be obtained from the solution of Hedin-like equations at the GWGW level.Comment: 10 pages and 3 figures (To appear in Physical Review B

    The grand canonical ABC model: a reflection asymmetric mean field Potts model

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    We investigate the phase diagram of a three-component system of particles on a one-dimensional filled lattice, or equivalently of a one-dimensional three-state Potts model, with reflection asymmetric mean field interactions. The three types of particles are designated as AA, BB, and CC. The system is described by a grand canonical ensemble with temperature TT and chemical potentials TλAT\lambda_A, TλBT\lambda_B, and TλCT\lambda_C. We find that for λA=λB=λC\lambda_A=\lambda_B=\lambda_C the system undergoes a phase transition from a uniform density to a continuum of phases at a critical temperature T^c=(2π/3)1\hat T_c=(2\pi/\sqrt3)^{-1}. For other values of the chemical potentials the system has a unique equilibrium state. As is the case for the canonical ensemble for this ABCABC model, the grand canonical ensemble is the stationary measure satisfying detailed balance for a natural dynamics. We note that T^c=3Tc\hat T_c=3T_c, where TcT_c is the critical temperature for a similar transition in the canonical ensemble at fixed equal densities rA=rB=rC=1/3r_A=r_B=r_C=1/3.Comment: 24 pages, 3 figure