357 research outputs found

    The PREVAIL trial and low-molecular-weight heparin for prevention of venous thromboembolism

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    Referral bias may underestimate number of very elderly patients eligible for rtPA

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    Insular cortex hypoperfusion and acute phase blood glucose after stroke: a CT perfusion study

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    <p><b>Background and Purpose:</b> Insular cortex ischemia is proposed to mediate a sympathetic stimulus that leads to acute hyperglycemia after stroke.</p> <p><b>Methods:</b> We retrospectively analyzed insular perfusion on perfusion CT (median 180 minutes after onset) in 35 patients.</p> <p><b>Results:</b> We found no association of hypoperfusion (relative cerebral blood flow <0.51) with early (<6 hours) or delayed (<72 hours) hyperglycemia, or hemispheric lateralization.</p> <p><b>Conclusions:</b> Insular cortex hypoperfusion <6 hours after stroke onset was not associated with hyperglycemia.</p&gt

    Randomised controlled trial of atraumatic versus standard needles for diagnostic lumbar puncture

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    OBJECTIVE: To compare the ease of use of atraumatic needles with standard needles for diagnostic lumbar puncture and the incidence of headache after their use. DESIGN: Double blind, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Investigation ward of a neurology unit in a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 116 patients requiring elective diagnostic lumbar puncture. INTERVENTIONS: Standardised protocol for lumbar puncture with 20 gauge atraumatic or standard needles. Outcome measures: The primary end point was intention to treat analysis of incidence of moderate to severe headache, assessed at one week by telephone interview. Secondary end points were incidence of headache at one week analysed by needle type, ease of use by operator according to a visual analogue scale, incidence of backache, and failure rate of puncture. RESULTS: Valid outcome data were available for 97 of 101 patients randomised. Baseline characteristics were matched except for higher body mass index in the standard needle group. By an intention to treat analysis the absolute risk of moderate to severe headache with atraumatic needles was reduced by 26% (95% confidence interval 6% to 45%) compared with standard needles, but there was a non-significantly greater absolute risk of multiple attempts at lumbar puncture (14%, -4% to 32%). Higher body mass index was associated with an increased failure rate with atraumatic needles, but the reduced incidence of headache was maintained. The need for medical interventions was reduced by 20% (1% to 40%). CONCLUSIONS: Atraumatic needles significantly reduced the incidence of moderate to severe headache and the need for medical interventions after diagnostic lumbar punctures, but they were associated with a higher failure rate than standard needles

    Brain lesion volume and capacity for consent in stroke trials: potential regulatory barriers to the use of surrogate markers

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    <p><b>Background and Purpose:</b> European directives and legislation in some countries forbid inclusion of subjects incapable of consent in research if recruitment of patients capable of consent will yield similar results. We compared brain lesion volumes in stroke patients deemed to have capacity to consent with those defined as incapacitated.</p> <p><b>Methods:</b> Data were obtained from 3 trials recruiting patients primarily with cortical stroke syndromes. Patients were recruited within 24 hours of onset and used MRI based selection or outcome criteria. Method of recruitment was recorded with stroke severity, age, and brain lesion volumes on Diffusion Weighted Imaging.</p> <p><b>Results:</b> Of the 56 subjects included, 38 (68%) were recruited by assent and 18 (32%) by consent. The assent group had a median lesion volume of 18.35 cubic centimetres (cc) (interquartile range [IQR] 8.27–110.31 cc), compared to 2.79 cc (IQR 1.31–12.33 cc) when patients consented (P=0.0004). Lesions were smaller than 5 cc in 7/38 (18%) in the assent group and 11/18 (61%) in the consent group (P=0.0024). There was good correlation between neurological deficit by NIH stroke scale score and lesion volume (r=0.584, P<0.0001). Logistic regression demonstrated NIHSS or lesion volume predicted capacity to consent.</p> <p><b>Conclusions:</b> Patients with acute stroke who retain capacity to consent have significantly smaller infarct volumes than those incapable of consent, and these are frequently below the limits where measurement error significantly compromises valid use of volumetric end points. Only a small proportion of patients with capacity to consent would be eligible for, and contribute usefully to, most acute stroke trial protocols.</p&gt

    Early recurrent ischemic stroke complicating intravenous thrombolysis for stroke: incidence and association with atrial fibrillation

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    <p><b>Background and Purpose:</b> Mechanisms of early neurologic deterioration after treatment with intravenous, recombinant, tissue-type plasminogen activator (IV rt-PA) include symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) and early recurrent ischemic stroke. We observed a number of cases of acute deterioration due to recurrent ischemic events.</p> <p><b>Methods:</b> We undertook a single-center, retrospective analysis of consecutive acute stroke patients treated with IV rt-PA between January 2006 and December 2008 to define the incidence of early neurologic deterioration (>= 4-point drop on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale within 72 hours) and its mechanism. Deterioration was attributed to SICH when associated with a PH1 or PH2 hemorrhage on postdeterioration computed tomography scans, to recurrent ischemic stroke when there was clinical and radiologic evidence of a new territorial infarction or new vessel occlusion, and otherwise to evolution of the incident stroke.</p> <p><b>Results:</b> Of 228 consecutive IV rt-PA-treated patients, 34 (15%) developed early neurologic deterioration, 18 (8%) secondary to incident strokes 10 (4.4%) due to SICH, and 6 (2.6%) due to early recurrent ischemic events, which were significantly associated with atrial fibrillation (present in 5 of 6 patients; 4 paroxysmal, 1 permanent). In 4 patients, sudden clinical deterioration developed during or shortly after IV rt-PA infusion, and in 2, deterioration developed 3 days later. All died 2 days to 2 weeks later. The single case without atrial fibrillation had a recurrent, contralateral, middle cerebral artery stroke during IV rt-PA infusion and multiple high-signal emboli detected by transcranial Doppler. Early recurrent ischemic stroke accounted for 5 of 12 (42%) cases of early neurologic deterioration in patients with atrial fibrillation.</p> <p><b>Conclusion:</b> In this single-center series, the incidence of early recurrent ischemic stroke after IV rt-PA was 2.6% and was associated with previous atrial fibrillation.</p&gt

    Can the ischemic penumbra be identified on noncontrast CT of acute stroke?

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    <p><b>Background and Purpose:</b> Early ischemic changes on noncontrast CT in acute stroke include both hypoattenuation and brain swelling, which may have different pathophysiological significance.</p> <p><b>Methods:</b> Noncontrast CT and CT perfusion brain scans from patients with suspected acute stroke <6 hours after onset were reviewed. Five raters independently scored noncontrast CTs blind to clinical data using the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS). Each ASPECTS region was scored as hypodense or swollen. A separate reviewer measured time to peak and cerebral blood volume in each ASPECTS region on CT perfusion. Time to peak and cerebral blood volume were compared for each region categorized as normal, hypodense, or isodense and swollen.</p> <p><b>Results:</b> Scans of 32 subjects a median 155 minutes after onset yielded 228 regions with both CT perfusion and noncontrast CT data. Isodense swelling was associated with significantly higher cerebral blood volume (P=0.016) and with penumbral perfusion (posttest:pretest likelihood ratio 1.44 [95% CI: 0.68 to 2.90]), whereas hypodensity was associated with more severe time to peak delay and with core perfusion (likelihood ratio 3.47 [95% CI: 1.87 to 6.34]). Neither isodense swelling nor hypodensity was sensitive for prediction of perfusion pattern, but appearances were highly specific (87.2% and 91.0% for penumbra and core, respectively). Intrarater agreement was good or excellent, but interrater agreement for both hypodensity and swelling was poor.</p> <p><b>Conclusions:</b> Regions exhibiting hypoattenuation are likely to represent the infarct core, whereas regions that are isodense and swollen have increased cerebral blood volume and are more likely to signify penumbral perfusion. Although noncontrast CT is not sensitive for detection of core and penumbra, appearances are specific. Some information on tissue viability can therefore be obtained from noncontrast CT.</p&gt

    Magnesium for treatment of acute lacunar stroke syndromes: further analysis of the IMAGES trial

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    <p><b>Background and Purpose:</b> A prespecified interaction analysis of the neutral Intravenous Magnesium Efficacy in Stroke (IMAGES) trial revealed significant benefit from magnesium (Mg) in patients with noncortical stroke. Post hoc analysis indicated that this effect was seen in lacunar clinical syndromes (LACS), interaction P=0.005. We have now examined whether this interaction could be explained by confounding baseline factors.</p> <p><b>Methods:</b> LACS was defined on the basis of neurological signs and did not include imaging. We investigated the interaction between baseline variables and Mg treatment on global outcome. We used logistic-regression models to test whether the Mg-LACS interaction remained significant after adjusting for stratification variables, sex, a novel stroke severity score, and baseline variables that had an interaction with treatment (P<0.1).</p> <p><b>Results:</b> The Mg (n=383) and placebo (n=382) groups of LACS patients were well matched on baseline factors. In addition to LACS, we found an interaction between beneficial Mg treatment effect and younger age (P=0.003), higher baseline diastolic blood pressure (P=0.02), higher mean blood pressure (P=0.02), and absence of ischemic heart disease (P=0.07). Even so, the adjusted Mg-LACS interaction remained significant (odds ratio [OR] 0.57; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.83; P=0.003). In the LACS subgroup, Mg improved Barthel Index <95 (OR 0.73; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.98), modified Rankin Scale >1 (OR 0.67; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.91), and global outcome (OR 0.70; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.92) but not Barthel Index <60 or mortality.</p> <p><b>Conclusions:</b> The positive treatment effect of Mg in LACS cannot be ascribed to general issues of severity, time to treatment, blood pressure, or other baseline factors; equally, this finding may be due to chance. A large trial of Mg treatment in LACS appears justified.</p&gt

    Atherosclerotic carotid plaque composition: a 3T and 7T MRI-histology correlation study

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    Background and Purpose Carotid artery atherosclerotic plaque composition may influence plaque stability and risk of thromboembolic events, and non-invasive plaque imaging may therefore permit risk stratification for clinical management. Plaque composition was compared using non-invasive in-vivo (3T) and ex-vivo (7T) MRI and histopathological examination. Methods Thirty three endarterectomy cross sections, from 13 patients, were studied. The datasets consisted of in-vivo 3T MRI, ex-vivo 7T MRI and histopathology. Semi-automated segmentation methods were used to measure areas of different plaque components. Bland- Altman plots and mean difference with 95% confidence interval were carried out. Results There was general quantitative agreement between areas derived from semi-automated segmentation of MRI data and histology measurements. The mean differences and 95% confidence bounds in the relative to total plaque area between 3T versus Histology were: fibrous tissue 4.99 % (-4.56 to 14.56), lipid-rich/necrotic core (LR/NC) with haemorrhage - 1.81% (-14.11 to 10.48), LR/NC without haemorrhage -2.43% (-13.04 to 8.17), and calcification -3.18% (-11.55 to 5.18). The mean differences and 95% confidence bounds in the relative to total plaque area between 7T and histology were: fibrous tissue 3.17 % (-3.17 to 9.52), LR/NC with haemorrhage -0.55% (-9.06 to 7.95), LR/NC without haemorrhage - 12.62% (-19.8 to -5.45), and calcification -2.43% (-9.97 to 4.73). Conclusions This study provides evidence that semi-automated segmentation of 3T/7T MRI techniques can help to determine atherosclerotic plaque composition. In particular, the high resolution of ex-vivo 7T data was able to highlight greater detail in the atherosclerotic plaque composition. High field MRI may therefore have advantages for in vivo carotid plaque MR imaging
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