3,887 research outputs found

    War on Terror: Do Military Measures Matter? Empirical Analysis of Post 9/11 Period in Pakistan

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    This paper is the first attempt to investigate the causal relationship between military spending, terrorist attacks and intensity of terrorism in Pakistan, by applying ARDL approach to cointegration and Innovation Accounting approach for causality analysis. The results indicate that war on terror is the major determinant of military spending followed by terrorism intensity and the number of terrorist attacks respectively. The study further finds that terrorism intensity and terrorist attacks Granger-cause military spending but the reverse causality is found absent. The failure of military measures to curtail terrorism and its intensity induces one to suggest greater involvement of civil intelligence agencies by raising their budgets instead of pure military budget.Causality Analysis; Military Spending; Civil Intelligence; Terrorism

    Does financial instability weaken the finance-growth nexus? A case for Pakistan

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    The paper investigates whether financial instability weakens finance-growth nexus in case of Pakistan. In doing so ARDL bounds testing approach is used for cointegration among variables over the period of 1971-2005. The results show that financial instability does weaken finance-growth nexus. Trade openness increases economic growth through spillover effects. Increasing inflation retards economic growth i.e., lower inflation rates are necessary for sustained economic growth. Political instability impedes economic growth. The present study indicates new direction for policy makers to sustain the pace of economic growth and avoid financial crisis.Financial Crisis, Financial Development, Economic Growth

    Does financial instability weaken the finance-growth nexus? A case for Pakistan

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    The paper investigates whether financial instability weakens finance-growth nexus in case of Pakistan. In doing so ARDL bounds testing approach is used for cointegration among variables over the period of 1971-2005. The results show that financial instability does weaken finance-growth nexus. Trade openness increases economic growth through spillover effects. Increasing inflation retards economic growth i.e., lower inflation rates are necessary for sustained economic growth. Political instability impedes economic growth. The present study indicates new direction for policy makers to sustain the pace of economic growth and avoid financial crisis.Financial Crisis, Financial Development, Economic Growth

    The effects of financial development, economic growth, coal consumption and trade openness on environment performance in South Africa

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    This paper explores the effects of financial development, economic growth, coal consumption and trade openness on environmental performance using annual data over the period of 1965-2008 for South African economy. ARDL bounds testing approach to cointegration has used to test the long run relationship among the variables while short run dynamics have been investigated by applying error correction method (ECM). Unit root problem is checked through Saikkonen and Lutkepohl [1] structural break unit root test. Our findings confirmed long run relationship among the variables. Results showed that a rise in economic growth increases energy emissions while financial development lowers it. Coal consumption has significant contribution to deteriorate environment significantly. Trade openness improves environmental quality by lowering the growth of energy pollutants. EKC is also existed.Coal Consumption, Economic Growth, Environment

    Cointegrated money in production function: evidence from a developing country

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    The notion that real money balances is a factor input has attracted considerable amount of attention from researchers and academicians. However, the debate is controversial and the consensus has yet to be developed. This issue becomes more important when a country follows contractionary monetary policy to curb inflation. The limited research for developing countries with sophisticated econometric techniques powered us to conduct this study. The underlying study employs cointegration approach to investigate the validity of money in production function of a developing country for the period 1964-2008. The cointegration results confirm money as an important factor input in the production function in the long run. The variance decomposition results surface money as greater contributor than labor and capital to output variability.Money, Production Function, Cointegration

    Does economic growth cause terrorism in Pakistan?

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    This paper analyzes the relationship between terrorism and economic growth for Pakistan by incorporating capital and trade openness. We used the data from 1971-2010 and have applied ARDL bounds testing approach to cointegration to examine the long run relationship between the variables. The VECM Granger causality approach is used to detect the direction of causality between terrorism and economic growth. Our empirical results confirm the existence of long run relationship between economic growth and terrorism. The Granger causality analysis indicates bidirectional causality between terrorism and capital, trade openness and capital, and terrorism and trade openness. However, unidirectional causality is found running from economic growth to terrorism.Terrorism, Economic Growth, Cointegration and Causality

    The Contemporaneous Correlation of Structural Shocks and Inflation— Output Variability in Pakistan

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    Monetary policy has changed in a number of ways during the last two decades . Along with the other characteristics, modern monetary policy is forward-looking, and the central banks respond contemporaneously to structural shocks that are expected to make inflation deviate from the future targets. This study aims at investigating this aspect of the monetary policy for Pakistan. Using a modified version of Structural Vector Autoregression (SVAR) developed by Enders and Hurn (2007), we have found a weak response of policy to supply-side shocks as the correlation coefficient between the demand and supply shocks is only 0.041. Moreover, the results show that the demand shocks have no significant contribution to output variability. On the other hand, both the demand and supply shocks, along with the foreign supply shocks, significantly contribute to inflation variability.Monetary Policy, Contemporaneous Correlation, Pakistan, Structural Shocks, Vector Autoregression

    ANALISIS ISI LAMBUNG, HUBUNGANPANJANGBERAT DAN FAKTOR KONDISI IKAN BETUTU (OXYELEOTRIS MARMORATA) YANG TERTANGKAPDI KRUENG ULIM KECAMATAN ULIM KABUPATEN PIDIE JAYA

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    Penelitian ini bertujuan untukmenganalisis isi lambung ikan betutu(Oxyeleotris marmorata) danhubungan panjang beratsebagai dasar pengembangan budidaya di Krueng Ulim Kabupaten Pidie Jaya. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode survey eksploratif sebanyak tiga lokasi sampling pada bulan Februari 2016 sampai Mei 2016 sebanyak 12 kali sampling. Penempatan ketiga lokasi ini berdasarkan informasi dari masyarakat dan nelayan yaitu pada tempat dan lokasi yang diduga banyak terdapat ikan betutu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Oxyeleotris marmoratadi dominasi oleh moluska dan dikategorikan sebagai makanan utama dengan nilai rerata40,88% di kedua lokasi. Pola pertumbuhanOxyeleotris marmorata tergolong Alometrik Negatif dengan nilai b= 2.74 pada lokasi 2 dan b=2,70 dilokasi 3. Faktor kondisi relatif mendekati 100, bermakna kondisi perairan masih dalam kondisi baik

    The Effect of Foreign Remittances on Schooling: Evidence from Pakistan

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    The underlying study intends to show the impact of foreign remittances on the educational performance of children in the households receiving these remittances. Much of the literature in this area covers the effects of remittances on poverty, consumption, and investment behaviour of the receiving households. The literature on the impact of remittances on educational performance, however, is rare, especially in Pakistan. To investigate the impact of remittances on educational performance, primary data at the household level is collected from four main cities of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. The OLS results illustrate that, without considering parental education, remittances have significant adverse effects on educational performance. However, the effect becomes insignificant once parental education is included, as a control variable, in the regression. The results also reveal that the low level of parental education, current income, assets, family type, and family size play an important role in the educational performance of children.Remittances , Education, Parental Absence

    PENGATURAN DIVERSI DI DALAM UNDANG-UNDANG NOMOR 11 TAHUN 2012 DAN PERATURAN MAHKAMAH AGUNG REPUBLIK INDONESIA NOMOR 4 TAHUN 2014

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    DIVERSION REGULATION OF LAW NUMBER11 YEAR 2012 AND SUPREME COURT REGULATION NUMBER 4 YEAR 2014 OF REPUBLIC OF INDONESIAMuhammad Nasir Mohd. Din Efendi ABSTRACT Diversion is a concept of transfer settlement of children cases from the criminal justice process to the outside of criminal justice system process as provided in Article 1 Paragraph (7) of Law No. 11 year 2012 on the Juvenile Crime Justice System and Article 3 of Supreme Court Regulation of Republic of Indonesia No. 4 year 2014 on Guidelines for the Implementation of the Juvenile Justice System. The use of diversion concept in the Juvenile Crime Justice System in Indonesia is started since the enactment of Law No. 11 year 2012. In the Article 7 Paragraph (2) Diversion are conducted in the event that criminal offenses are threatened under 7 (seven) years, meanwhile Article 3 of Supreme Court Regulation of Republic of Indonesia No. 4 year 2014 stipulated that a diversion is exercised in the event that a child is accused of a crime of 7 (seven) years or more. Both of the legal instruments which regulate about diversions are contradict each other, therefore mean that the rules of Supreme Court Regulation of Republic of Indonesia are contrary to the higher hierarchical laws. This can lead to incompatibility of the rule of law and it makes confusion on which rule of law should be guided by the law enforcement so that the provisions of the law can be applied and implemented in the juvenile criminal justice The purpose of this study is to understand and explain about the position of the Supreme Court Regulation of Republic of Indonesia No. 4 year 2014 on the Guidelines for the Implementation of Diversion in the Juvenile Crime Justice System in the legal system. Then, to know and explain how the synchronization of the provisions of Supreme Court Regulation of Republic of Indonesia No. 4 year 2014 on Guidelines for Implementation of Diversion in the Juvenile Crime Justice System with the Law of Diversion No. 11 year 2012 on the Juvenile Justice System. This research type is normative juridical research which uses legislation approach that is done by researching the legislation relevant to the problems studied with the data source is secondary data in the form of primary legal materials, secondary legal materials and tertiary legal materials (supporting). The data obtained from primary law materials, secondary, tertiary and subsequent data analysis is done with a qualitative approach that is content analysis. In other words this research is looking at the law of the normative aspects and its content. The results showed that the Supreme Court Regulation of Republic of Indonesia No. 4 year 2014 on Guidelines for Implementation of Diversion in the Juvenile Crime Justice System is one kind of regulation other than those referred to in Article 1 of Law No. 12 year 2011 which is hierarchically under the Law, and acknowledged its existence and have binding legal force as it is established in accordance with the authority (Article 8 Paragraphs 1 and 2). It function is as an instrument of technical procedural law in the settlement of juvenile crime in conflict with the law that is more responsive and progressive against the interests of the child, without distinction of severity of criminal acts committed by children as well as high and low of criminal threat, because in Law Number 11 Year 2012 on Juvenile Crime Justice System regulate that not all criminal acts committed by a child can be resolve with diversion. Sustantively, the regulation of diversion in Supreme Court Regulation of Republic of Indonesia No. 4 year 2014 on Guidelines for Implementation of Diversion in the Juvenile Crime Justice System are not in line with the regulation of diversion in Act No. 11 year 2012 on the Juvenile Crime Justice System. It is because the rules of Diversion in the Supreme Court Regulation of Republic of Indonesia No. 4 year 2014 on Guidelines for Implementation of Diversion in the Juvenile Crime Justice System are broader and contrary to the rules of diversion in Act No. 11 year 2012. Thus, the Indonesian Supreme Court Regulation No. 4 year 2014 only applied by the judge when the case of the juvenile crime up to the trial, while other law enforcer as police, prosecutors as investigators and prosecutor of the juvenile crime case are not bound and do not even guided by the Indonesian Supreme Court Regulation No. 4 year 2014. However, when seen from the perspective of restorative justice, progressive law and the purpose of the law, Indonesian Supreme Court Regulation may cover up the vulnerability gap in Law No. 11 year 2012 for being more responsive and flexible. It is suggested for all law enforcement officers to handle of children's cases, especially on the police as investigators and the Public Prosecution Service as a public prosecutor, to diversify all crimes committed by the child and also obey the Supreme Court Regulation No. 4 year 2014 as the regulation related to the diversion. Moreover, it is suggested to the legislators to revise the concept of diversion in order to be in harmonize with other relevant regulations for the interest of juvenile case settlement without discrimination, with equal treatment, for the benefit and interest of all children facing the law.Keywords: Diversion, Laws and Supreme Court Regulation PENGATURAN DIVERSI DI DALAM UNDANG-UNDANG NOMOR 11 TAHUN 2012 DAN PERATURAN MAHKAMAH AGUNG REPUBLIK INDONESIA NOMOR 4 TAHUN 2014Muhammad Nasir Mohd. Din Efendi ABSTRAK Konsep diversi adalah pengalihan penyelesaian perkara anak dari proses peradilan pidana ke proses di luar sistim peradilan pidana sebagaimana diatur dalam ketentuan Pasal 1 angka 7 Undang-Undang Nomor 11 tahun 2012 tentang Sistim Peradilan Pidana Anak dan ketentuan Pasal 3 Peraturan Mahkamah Agung Republik Indonesia Nomor 4 Tahun 2014 tentang Pedoman Pelaksanaan Sistim Peradilan Pidana Anak. Penggunaan konsep diversi dalam sistim peradilan pidana anak di Indonesia relatif masih baru yang dimulai sejak berlakunya Undang-Undang Nomor 11 Tahun 2012. Dalam ketentuan Pasal 7 Ayat (2) Diversi dilaksanakan dalam hal tindak pidana diancam di bawah 7 (tujuh) tahun, sedangakan berdasarkan Pasal 3 Peraturan Mahkamah Agung Republik Indonesia Nomor 4 Tahun 2014 ditentukan diversi dilaksanakan dalam hal anak didakwa melakukan pidana 7 (tujuh) tahun atau lebih. Kedua instrumen hukum tersebut di atas yang sama-sama mengatur tentang diversi tidak sinkron bahkan saling bertentangan artinya aturan dalam Peraturan Mahkamah Agung Republik Indonesia bertentangan dengan Undang-Undang yang secara hierarki lebih tinggi kedudukannya. Hal tersebut dapat menimbulkan ketidakserasian aturan hukum dan aturan hukum mana yang harus dipedomani oleh penegak hukum sehingga ketentuan hukum tersebut dapat diterapkan dan dilaksanakan dalam Peradilan pidana anak. Adapun tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui dan menjelaskan tentang bagaimana kedudukan Peraturan Mahkamah Agung Republik Indonesia Nomor 4 Tahun 2014 tentang Pedoman Pelaksanaan Diversi Dalam Sistem Peradilan Pidana Anak dalam sistem peraturan Perundang-Undangan. Dan untuk mengetahui dan menjelaskan bagaimana sinkronisasi ketentuan dalam Peraturan Mahkamah Agung Republik Indonesia Nomor 4 Tahun 2014 tentang Pedoman Pelaksanaan Diversi Dalam Sistim Peradilan Pidana Anak dengan ketentuan Diversi dalam Undang-Undang Nomor 11 Tahun 2012 tentang Sistem Peradilan Pidana Anak. Penelitian ini merupakan jenis penelitian yuridis normatif dengan menggunakan metode pendekatan Perundang-Undangan yaitu pendekatan yang dilakukan dengan cara meneliti terlebih dahulu peraturan Perundang-Undangan yang relevan dengan permasalahan yang diteliti dengan sumber data adalah data sekunder yang berupa bahan hukum primer, bahan hukum sekunder dan bahan hukum tersier (penunjang). Data yang diperoleh, baik dari bahan hukum primer, sekunder, tersier dan selanjutnya analisis data dilakukan dengan pendekatan kualitatif yaitu analisis isi. Dengan kata lain penelitian ini yaitu melihat hukum dari aspek normatif dan materi muatannya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Peraturan Mahkamah Agung Republik Indonesia Nomor 4 tahun 2014 tentang Pedoman Pelaksanaan Diversi Dalam Sistem Peradilan Pidana Anak merupakan salah satu jenis peraturan Perundang-Undangan. Selain yang disebut dalam Pasal 1 Undang-Undang Nomor 12 Tahun 2011 yang diakui keberadaannya dan mempunyai kekuatan hukum mengikat karena dibentuk sesuai dengan kewenangan (Pasal 8 Ayat (1) dan ayat (2). Adapun fungsinya adalah sebagai instrumen tehnis hukum acara (hukum formil) dalam penyelesaian perkara pidana anak yang berhadapan dengan hukum yang lebih responsif terhadap kepentingan anak, tanpa membeda-bedakan berat ringannya perbuatan pidana yang dilakukan anak maupun. Karena dalam Undang-Undang Nomor 11 Tahun 2012 Tentang Sistem Peradilan Pidana Anak pengaturan hukum acara berkaitan dengan mekanisme penyelesaian perkara pidana anak tidak semua perbuatan pidana yang dilakukan oleh anak dapat dilakukan dengan diversi. Pengaturan diversi dalam Peraturan Mahkamah Agung Republik Indonesia Nomor 4 Tahun 2014 tentang Pedoman Pelaksanaan Diversi Dalam Sistim Peradilan pidana Anak dengan ketentuan diversi dalam Undang-Undang Nomor 11 Tahun 2012 tentang Sistem Peradilan Pidana Anak dari segi materi muatannya memang tidak sinergis. Karena aturan Diversi dalam Peraturan Mahkamah Republik Indonesia Nomor 4 Tahun 2014 lebih luas dan bertentangan serta menyimpang dengan aturan diversi dalam Undang-Undang Nomor 11 Tahun 2012. Sehingga Peraturan Mahkamah Agung Republik Indonesia Nomor 4 tahun 2014 hanya diterapkan oleh hakim ketika perkara anak sampai pada tahap persidangan di Pengadilan, sedangkan penegak hukum lainnya Polisi, Jaksa sebagai penyidik dan penuntut unum perkara anak tidak terikat dan bahkan tidak mempedomani Peraturan Mahkamah Agung Republik Indonesia Nomor 4 Tahun 2014. Namun, apabila dilihat dari perspektif keadilan restoratif, hukum progresif dan tujuan hukum, Peraturan Mahkamah Agung Republik Indonesia tersebut dapat menutupi celah kelemahan dalam Undang-Undang Nomor 11 Tahun 2012. Disarankan pada semua aparat penegak hukum agar dalam penanganan perkara anak yang berhadapan dengan hukum, khususnya pada pihak kepolisian sebagai penyidik dan, Kejaksaan sebagai penuntut umum untuk melakukan diversi terhadap semua perkara pidana yang dilakukan oleh anak dan seyogyanya Peraturan Mahkamah Agung Republik Indonesia Nomor 4 Tahun 2014 dapat dipedomani juga oleh Penegak hukum selain dari hakim di Pengadilan. Disarankan kepada pembentuk Undang-Undang untuk merevisi kembali mengenai konsep diversi agar dapat sinkron dengan peraturan terkait lainnya untuk kepentingan penanganan perkara anak tanpa diskriminasi, perlakuan yang sama, demi kemaslahatan dan kepentingan semua anak yang berhadapan dengan hukum.Kata kunci : Diversi, Undang-Undang dan Peraturan Mahkamah Agun
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