16 research outputs found

    MODERN APPROACH TOWARDS ‚ÄúSTANDARD FORM‚ÄĚ CONTRACTS: A LEGAL PERSPECTIVE

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    In ‚ÄúStandard Form‚ÄĚ contracts, one party drafts the terms and conditions and the other party is invited to accept it or leave it. Only option for the invited party is either adhere to all the terms and conditions or leave it altogether. Standard forms are commonly used in the contemporary complex world of mass corporations, mass production of goods and services among others. The use of standard terms and condition is not only limited to contracts in commercial transactions but also in contracts with public authorities, multinational organizations and giant corporations, banking, insurance and transportations etc. These contracts are termed and named differently in different jurisdictions. Sometimes it is referred to as standard-form contract or boilerplate agreements. The Standard Form contracts s are used abundantly in every field. Examples include insurance contacts, employment contracts, banking contracts, transportation, online websites and software among others. This study aim to discuss the origin and historical evolution of the standard form contracts including its characteristics and features. This study will also provide a comparison between the standard contracts and the conventional contractual Paradigm. Additionally, the principle of freedom of contract and initial judicial response to the contracts of adhesion has also been discussed in this study. Finally, the application of strict contract theory and modern approach towards standard form contracts, doctrine of Unconscionability has been discussed from legal prospective. This study will help to understand the rights of weaker parties and to protect them in any unjust situation arises from any such contract

    Association of Socio-Demographic and Clinicopathological Risk Factors with Oral Cancers: A 19-Year Retrospective Study

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    Objective: To determine the association of socio-demographic and clinic-pathological risk factors with oral cancer in Kelantan, Malaysia. Material and Methods: A 19-year cross-sectional survey was performed in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Malaysia. Medical record of 301 oral cancer patients was retrieved from the Medical Records office. Results: The majority of the oral cancer cases were male (62.8%), non-smokers (57.5%), non-alcohol consumers (83.4%), non-betel quid chewers (96.7%), and belonged to Malay ethnicity (68.8%). At the time of diagnosis, most of the patients were at stage II (38.9%). Approximately one-third (30.6%) of the total OC patients experienced loco-regional/distant metastasis, whereas no metastasis was detected in around two-thirds of cases (69.4%). A combination of surgery and radiotherapy was the most commonly employed treatment modality (27.2%). At the time of this study, the survival status of most of the patients was alive (69.1%). The most frequently encountered oral cancer in the Kelantanese population was oral squamous cell carcinoma (70.1%), with the tongue being the most frequently involved oral cavity site (35.5%). Conclusion: More than three-fourths of the cases were alive at follow-up, which included the cases that did not undergo any form of treatment

    Association of Socio-Demographic and Clinicopathological Risk Factors with Oral Cancers: A 19-Year Retrospective Study

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    Objective: To determine the association of socio-demographic and clinic-pathological risk factors with oral cancer in Kelantan, Malaysia. Material and Methods: A 19-year cross-sectional survey was performed in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Malaysia. Medical record of 301 oral cancer patients was retrieved from the Medical Records office. Results: The majority of the oral cancer cases were male (62.8%), non-smokers (57.5%), non-alcohol consumers (83.4%), non-betel quid chewers (96.7%), and belonged to Malay ethnicity (68.8%). At the time of diagnosis, most of the patients were at stage II (38.9%). Approximately one-third (30.6%) of the total OC patients experienced loco-regional/distant metastasis, whereas no metastasis was detected in around two-thirds of cases (69.4%). A combination of surgery and radiotherapy was the most commonly employed treatment modality (27.2%). At the time of this study, the survival status of most of the patients was alive (69.1%). The most frequently encountered oral cancer in the Kelantanese population was oral squamous cell carcinoma (70.1%), with the tongue being the most frequently involved oral cavity site (35.5%). Conclusion: More than three-fourths of the cases were alive at follow-up, which included the cases that did not undergo any form of treatment

    Global injury morbidity and mortality from 1990 to 2017 : results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

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    Correction:Background Past research in population health trends has shown that injuries form a substantial burden of population health loss. Regular updates to injury burden assessments are critical. We report Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 Study estimates on morbidity and mortality for all injuries. Methods We reviewed results for injuries from the GBD 2017 study. GBD 2017 measured injury-specific mortality and years of life lost (YLLs) using the Cause of Death Ensemble model. To measure non-fatal injuries, GBD 2017 modelled injury-specific incidence and converted this to prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs). YLLs and YLDs were summed to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Findings In 1990, there were 4 260 493 (4 085 700 to 4 396 138) injury deaths, which increased to 4 484 722 (4 332 010 to 4 585 554) deaths in 2017, while age-standardised mortality decreased from 1079 (1073 to 1086) to 738 (730 to 745) per 100 000. In 1990, there were 354 064 302 (95% uncertainty interval: 338 174 876 to 371 610 802) new cases of injury globally, which increased to 520 710 288 (493 430 247 to 547 988 635) new cases in 2017. During this time, age-standardised incidence decreased non-significantly from 6824 (6534 to 7147) to 6763 (6412 to 7118) per 100 000. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised DALYs decreased from 4947 (4655 to 5233) per 100 000 to 3267 (3058 to 3505). Interpretation Injuries are an important cause of health loss globally, though mortality has declined between 1990 and 2017. Future research in injury burden should focus on prevention in high-burden populations, improving data collection and ensuring access to medical care.Peer reviewe

    Abstracts from the 3rd International Genomic Medicine Conference (3rd IGMC 2015)

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    Global, regional, and national burden of disorders affecting the nervous system, 1990‚Äď2021: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2021