1,064 research outputs found

    The 2mrad horizontal crossing angle IR layout for a TeV ILC

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    The current status of the 2mrad crossing angle layout for the ILC is reviewed. The scheme developed in the UK and France is described and the performance discussed for a TeV machine. Secondly, the scheme developed at SLAC and BNL is then studied and modified for a TeV machine. We find that both schemes can handle the higher energy beam with modifications, and share many common features.Comment: The proceedings of the 2005 International Linear Collider Workshop, March 2005. 4 pages, 5 figure

    One-dimensional spectral analysis techniques for multilevel PWM strategies

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    This paper presents a novel spectral analysis technique for multilevel modulation. Conventionally, such analyses use a double Fourier series technique, but this approach can become intractable when complex reference waveforms (e.g., multilevel space vector offsets) and regular sampling processes are considered. In contrast, the strategy proposed in this paper separates the multilevel pulse width modulation (PWM) waveform into a spectral image of the reference, and sideband basis functions which are then expanded using a one-dimensional Fourier series. The coefficients of this Fourier series are defined by a one-dimensional Fourier integral that is simpler in form compared to the corresponding double integral associated with the double Fourier series. This analysis technique naturally incorporates regular sampling, and a discrete formulation is developed that enables complex PWM reference waveforms, including centered space vector offsets, to be solved. Results of this analysis are validated against previously published multilevel inverter double Fourier series results and matching switched simulations

    Effect of Sn on generalized stacking fault energy surfaces in zirconium and its hydrides

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    Hydrogen embrittlement in Zr alloy fuel cladding is a primary safety concern for water based nuclear reactors. Here we investigated the stabilisation of planar defects within the forming hydrides by Sn, the primary alloying element of Zircaloy-4 used in the cladding. In order to explain formation of hydrides and planar defects observed in our experiments, we performed atomic-scale ab initio calculations focusing on the solute interactions with generalized stacking faults in hcp α\alpha-Zr and fcc zirconium hydrides. Our calculations showed that an increase in Sn concentration leads to a stabilisation of stacking faults in both α\alpha-Zr and hydride phases. However, the solution enthalpy of Sn is lower in the α\alpha-Zr as compared to the other hydride phases indicative of two competing processes of Sn depletion/enrichment at the Zr hydride/matrix interface. This is corroborated by experimental findings, where Sn is repelled by hydrides and is mostly found trapped at interfaces and planar defects indicative of stacking faults inside the hydride phases. Our systematic investigation enables us to understand the presence and distribution of solutes in the hydride phases, which provides a deeper insight into the microstructural evolution of such alloy's properties during its service lifetime.Comment: 17 pages, 8 figure

    PHIL: a Test Beam line at LAL

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    WEPP078International audienceIn the framework of a European contract*, LAL is in charge of the construction of one photo-injector for the drive beam linac of the CLIC Test Facility 3 [1] at CERN. This contract together with national funds allowed LAL to build a home test accelerator, PHIL, with the same photo-injector as for CTF3. The goal is to undergo experiments on the design and technology of advanced RF guns, to develop diagnostics and feedback techniques, a part of the beam time will be also shared with users of the electron beam. So far, the construction of this accelerator at LAL was very much delayed because of the legal obligation to upgrade the radiation shielding in agreement with the actual radiation safety thresholds. The required civil engineering is now finished and the installation of the components is under way. We will first present a design of the accelerator and few dynamic simulation results. Finally we will give an up to date status of the accelerator construction

    An Injector for the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3)

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    The CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) is an intermediate step to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the key concepts of the new RF power source for CLIC. CTF3 will use electron beams with an energy range adjustable from 170 MeV (3.5 A) to 380 MeV (with low current). The injector is based on a thermionic gun followed by a classical bunching system embedded in a long solenoidal field. As an alternative, an RF photo-injector is also being studied. The beam dynamics studies on how to reach the stringent beam parameters at the exit of the injector are presented. Simulations performed with the EGUN code showed that a current of 7 A can be obtained with an emittance less than 10 mm.mrad at the gun exit. PARMELA results are presented and compared to the requested beam performance at the injector exit. Sub-Harmonic Bunchers (SHB) are foreseen, to switch the phase of the bunch trains by 180 degrees from even to odd RF buckets. Specific issues of the thermionic gun and of the SHB with fast phase switch are discussed

    Modelling fish habitat preference with a genetic algorithm-optimized Takagi-Sugeno model based on pairwise comparisons

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    Species-environment relationships are used for evaluating the current status of target species and the potential impact of natural or anthropogenic changes of their habitat. Recent researches reported that the results are strongly affected by the quality of a data set used. The present study attempted to apply pairwise comparisons to modelling fish habitat preference with Takagi-Sugeno-type fuzzy habitat preference models (FHPMs) optimized by a genetic algorithm (GA). The model was compared with the result obtained from the FHPM optimized based on mean squared error (MSE). Three independent data sets were used for training and testing of these models. The FHPMs based on pairwise comparison produced variable habitat preference curves from 20 different initial conditions in the GA. This could be partially ascribed to the optimization process and the regulations assigned. This case study demonstrates applicability and limitations of pairwise comparison-based optimization in an FHPM. Future research should focus on a more flexible learning process to make a good use of the advantages of pairwise comparisons

    Atomic-scale investigation of hydrogen distribution in a Ti–Mo alloy

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    Ingress of hydrogen is often linked to catastrophic failure of Ti-alloys. Here, we quantify the hydrogen distribution in fully β and α + β Ti–Mo alloys by using atom probe tomography. Hydrogen does not segregate at grain boundaries in the fully β sample but segregates at some α/β phase boundaries with a composition exceeding 20 at.% in the α + β sample. No stable hydrides were observed in either sample. The hydrogen concentration in β phases linearly decreases from ~13 at. % to ~4 at. % with increasing Mo-content, which is ascribed to the suppression of hydrogen uptake by Mo addition

    A laser triggered electron source for pulsed radiolysis

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    We present the design of a photo-injector based accelerator for pulsed radiolysis applications. This machine is destined to meet the needs of the physical chemistry community at the Universite de Paris XI. A 4 MeV Energy electron pulse of a few picoseconds duration and with a charge in the range of 1 to 10 nC is produced from a Cs/sub 2 /Te photocathode. The photocathode is placed in the half energy spread cell of a 1-1/2 cell, 3 GHz RF gun, whose design is based on the gun used for the drive beam of the CERN CLIC Test facility. A 4 cell "booster" cavity is then used to accelerate the beam to an energy of 9 MeV. The transport system consists of a quadrupole triplet downsteam of the booster, two rectangular, 30 degree bend, dipoles with a pair of quadrupoles between them and a second triplet downstream of the second dipole. Energy dependent path length effects in the two dipoles allow the possibility of magnetic bunch compression depending on the phase-energy correlation of the bunch exiting the booster cavity. The beam envelope and the bunch length have been calculated through the transport line using TRACE-3d and PARMELA. These codes allow us to verify the required beam parameters at the experimental areas. We discuss the adjustment of the optics, aimed at producing the minimum electron bunch length at the experimental targets. (4 refs)
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