20 research outputs found

    Une évaluation des services d'éco-mobilité à l'échelle du territoire

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    Trabajo de investigaciónCette thèse invite à mieux comprendre les enjeux autour du développement des projets innovants de transports intégrés dans les territoires, souvent caractérisés d’éco-mobilité. Par la réalisation de nouveaux comportements pour les usagers, mais aussi par de nouvelles relations entre acteurs, à la fois usagers, entreprises et collectivités, ces projets invitent à repenser dans une perspective plus large les logiques de performances et d’évaluation. Les outils traditionnels utilisés dans le champ économique ne semblent pas suffisamment saisir la complexité inhérente à ces programmes, il est donc opportun de développer de nouvelles pistes davantage orientées dans une approche ouverte et pluridisciplinaire. Pour cela, nous appuierons notre réflexion par le croisement entre deux programmes situés dans les Yvelines. En effet, ce territoire semble le terreau de nombreuses initiatives au cours des dernières années. Les résultats obtenus à l’issue d’un travail de terrain ayant permis de rencontrer un large panel d’acteurs, permettront d’améliorer le champ des connaissances de ces programmes émergeants et de tirer des enseignements dans le cadre de futurs projets.Chaire Industrielle ContinentalTrabajo de investigació

    Tendencia de la prevalencia de anemia en niños de 6 a 35 meses en el Perú durante el período 2014-2019

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    Introduction: In Peru, 4 out of 10 children under 3 years of age suffer from anemia. Objective: to determine the trend in the prevalence of anemia in children aged 6 to 35 months, during the period 2014-2019. The study: We perform a secondary analysis of repeated annual cross sections for the period. We used the chi-square test of joint significance for each category of exposure variables. Findings: The main results show a decrease in the prevalence of childhood anemia during the 2014-2019 period from 46.92% to 40.33%, specifically in girls and boys aged 12 to 24 months. Conclusions: The decrease was greater in rural areas, in the natural regions of Sierra and Selva, among the children of mothers with a higher level of education and households with the highest wealth quintile. The Puno region presents the smallest decrease in childhood anemia during the period analyzed.Introducción: En el Perú, 4 de cada 10 niños menores de 3 años padecen de anemia. Objetivo: determinar la tendencia de la prevalencia de anemia en niños de 6 a 35 meses, durante el período 2014-2019. El estudio: realizamos un análisis secundario de secciones transversales anuales repetidas para el período. Usamos la prueba chi-cuadrado de significancia conjunta para cada categoría de variables de exposición. Hallazgos: los principales resultados muestran una disminución de la prevalencia de anemia infantil durante el período 2014-2019 del 46,92% al 40,33%, específicamente en niñas y niños de 12 a 24 meses. Conclusiones: la disminución fue mayor en las áreas rurales, en las regiones naturales de Sierra y Selva, entre los hijos de madres con mayor nivel de educación y los hogares con mayor quintil de riqueza. La región de Puno presenta la menor disminución de anemia infantil durante el período analizado

    Un análisis bibliométrico de la literatura sobre el gasto de bolsillo en salud en América Latina

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    Objetive: perform a bibliometric analysis of the scientific production on out-of-pocket expense (OOPE) published in Latin America from the period 2002 to 2020 is conducted. The study: we use the Scopus database to select related articles about OOPE in Latin America. Bibliometric indicators were analyzed using Bibliometrix and Biblioshiny R packages. Findings: we identified 207 documents and 828 authors during the period 2002-2020. The number of publications increased (12.62% annual growth rate). “Salud Publica de Mexico” was the leading journals in number of publications. The majority of publications came from developing country collaboration with developed countries such as United States or United Kingdom. Mexico was the most productive and cited country in OOPE in Latin America. Conclusions: the documents published in journals related to OOPE in Latin America are increasing, being Mexico the most productive and cited country in out-of-pocket expense fields in the region.Objetivo: realizar un análisis bibliométrico de la producción científica sobre gasto de bolsillo publicada en América Latina desde el período 2002 al 2020. El estudio: se utilizó la base de datos Scopus para seleccionar artículos relacionados con gasto de bolsillo en América Latina. Los indicadores bibliométricos se analizaron utilizando los paquetes Bibliometrix y Biblioshiny R. Hallazgos: se identificaron 207 documentos y 888 autores durante el período 2002-2020. El número de publicaciones aumentó (tasa de crecimiento anual del 12,62%). “Salud Pública de México” fue la revista líder en número de publicaciones. La mayoría de las publicaciones provinieron de la colaboración de países en desarrollo con países desarrollados como Estados Unidos o Reino Unido. México fue el país más productivo y citado en OOPE en América Latina. Conclusiones: los documentos publicados en revistas relacionadas con OOPE en Latinoamérica van en aumento, siendo México el país más productivo y citado en rubros de gasto de bolsillo en la región

    Hacia una recuperación Post-pandemia

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    El año 2021 ha marcado un cambio importante en el proceso de difusión de las vacunas contra el Covid-19 a nivel mundial, y con mayor eficiencia en países latinoamericanos, como es el caso de Perú, que facilitó la recuperación de la economía peruana después de un año previo con alta desaceleración productiva y marcado por una saturación de los servicios de salud y la aplicación de restricciones sanitarias particularmente severas en industrias con alta dotación de mano de obra, acentuando el proceso de crisis económica y de informalidad del mercado laboral. Según información del último informe del Banco Mundial (2021), las perspectivas de crecimiento de la economía nacional se establecen a 11.3% para 2021, en un contexto de recuperación de la demanda interna y a nivel internacional por el aumento del precios de los minerales, sin embargo, existe brechas pendientes para el próximo año, como la recuperación del empleo en el sector formal y el retorno a clase presencial para la mayoría de los alumnos del país

    Hacia una recuperación Post-pandemia

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    El año 2021 ha marcado un cambio importante en el proceso de difusión de las vacunas contra el Covid-19 a nivel mundial, y con mayor eficiencia en países latinoamericanos, como es el caso de Perú, que facilitó la recuperación de la economía peruana después de un año previo con alta desaceleración productiva y marcado por una saturación de los servicios de salud y la aplicación de restricciones sanitarias particularmente severas en industrias con alta dotación de mano de obra, acentuando el proceso de crisis económica y de informalidad del mercado laboral. Según información del último informe del Banco Mundial (2021), las perspectivas de crecimiento de la economía nacional se establecen a 11.3% para 2021, en un contexto de recuperación de la demanda interna y a nivel internacional por el aumento del precios de los minerales, sin embargo, existe brechas pendientes para el próximo año, como la recuperación del empleo en el sector formal y el retorno a clase presencial para la mayoría de los alumnos del país

    Incidence of Energy Consumption, Mining Sector and Economic Growth on CO2 Emission Levels: Evidence from Peru

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    Environmental pollution and its harmful effects have become a growing topic of study in recent years because the exploitation of resources, rationalized by the prevailing desire for economic growth, is going to directly affect the sustainability of our existing ecosystem in the coming decades. This is considering that there are productive sectors that have a larger environmental footprint, such as the mining industry. This study focuses on establishing the relationship between the variables of energy consumption, GDP per capita, and mineral rents and their impact on the level of pollution by CO2 emissions in the period 1971–2019, using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) theory. To this end, we used statistical and econometric tools based on the ARDL dynamic model through a time series analysis starting from historical data. We concluded that the variables CEpc, PBIpc, and RM have deleterious effects as a 1% increase in these variables increases the level of environmental pollution by CO2 emissions by 0.724%, 0.136%, and 0.061%, respectively

    Self-Medication Practices, Use of Brand-Name, and Over-the-Counter Medicines by Peruvian Older Adults

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    Background Older adults are a particularly vulnerable group to drug use and self-medication. The aim of the study was to evaluate self-medication as a factor associated with the purchase of brand-name and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs in older adults in Peru. Methods A secondary analysis was performed using an analytical cross-sectional design of data from a nationally representative survey from 2014 to 2016. The exposure variable was self-medication, defined as the purchase of medicines without a prescription. The dependent variables were purchases of brand-name and OTC drugs, both as a dichotomous response (yes/no). Information of sociodemographic variables, health insurance, and the types of drugs purchased by the participants was collected. Crude prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated and adjusted using generalized linear models of the Poisson family, considering the complex sample of the survey. Results In this study, 1,115 respondents were evaluated, with a mean age of 63.8 years and a male proportion of 48.2%. The prevalence of self-medication was 66.6%, while the proportions of purchases of brand-name and OTC drugs were 62.4% and 23.6%, respectively. The adjusted Poisson regression analysis revealed an association between self-medication and the purchase of brand-name drugs (adjusted PR [aPR]=1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01–1.19). Likewise, self-medication was associated with the purchase of OTC medications (aPR=1.97; 95%CI: 1.55–2.51). Conclusions This study evidenced a high prevalence of self-medication in Peruvian older adults. Two-thirds of the surveyed people bought brand-name drugs, whereas one-quarter bought OTC drugs. Self-medication was associated with a greater likelihood of buying brand-name and OTC drugs

    Magnetic Resonance Thermometry at 7T for Real-Time Monitoring and Correction of Ultrasound Induced Mild Hyperthermia

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    While Magnetic Resonance Thermometry (MRT) has been extensively utilized for non-invasive temperature measurement, there is limited data on the use of high field (≥7T) scanners for this purpose. MR-guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) is a promising non-invasive method for localized hyperthermia and drug delivery. MRT based on the temperature sensitivity of the proton resonance frequency (PRF) has been implemented in both a tissue phantom and in vivo in a mouse Met-1 tumor model, using partial parallel imaging (PPI) to speed acquisition. An MRgFUS system capable of delivering a controlled 3D acoustic dose during real time MRT with proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) feedback control was developed and validated. Real-time MRT was validated in a tofu phantom with fluoroptic temperature measurements, and acoustic heating simulations were in good agreement with MR temperature maps. In an in vivo Met-1 mouse tumor, the real-time PID feedback control is capable of maintaining the desired temperature with high accuracy. We found that real time MR control of hyperthermia is feasible at high field, and k-space based PPI techniques may be implemented for increasing temporal resolution while maintaining temperature accuracy on the order of 1°C

    Benoit Mougenot's Quick Files

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    The Quick Files feature was discontinued and it’s files were migrated into this Project on March 11, 2022. The file URL’s will still resolve properly, and the Quick Files logs are available in the Project’s Recent Activity

    Association between the Expression of Sexual Orientation and/or Gender Identity and Mental Health Perceptions in the Peruvian LGBTI Population

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    Introduction: The non-expression of sexual orientation and gender identity can affect mental health in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex population in Peru. Method: Secondary, observational, analytical, and cross-sectional analyses of data from the “First Virtual Survey on the LGBTI population” were conducted with a population (n = 11,345) of LGBTI adults aged 18 years old or more. The variables of mental health and expression of sexual orientation and/or gender identity were measured using a self-reported questionnaire that did not include a validated scale; questions with multiple alternatives that included “yes” and “no” options were used. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were obtained by glm log Poisson regression models. Results: The median age of the participants was 25 years (IQR: 21–30), and the majority of the population identified as gay, followed by lesbian and bisexual. Individuals who expressed their sexual orientation and/or gender identity were 17% less likely to have had perceived mental health problems in the last 12 months (PR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.76–0.90, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The non-expression of sexual orientation and/or gender identity has a significant negative effect on the mental health problems of the LGBTI population. These results highlight the importance of promoting the expression of sexual orientation and gender identity in our community
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