339 research outputs found

    Superpixel-based spatial amplitude and phase modulation using a digital micromirror device

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    We present a superpixel method for full spatial phase and amplitude control of a light beam using a digital micromirror device (DMD) combined with a spatial filter. We combine square regions of nearby micromirrors into superpixels by low pass filtering in a Fourier plane of the DMD. At each superpixel we are able to independently modulate the phase and the amplitude of light, while retaining a high resolution and the very high speed of a DMD. The method achieves a measured fidelity F=0.98F=0.98 for a target field with fully independent phase and amplitude at a resolution of 8×88\times 8 pixels per diffraction limited spot. For the LG10_{10} orbital angular momentum mode the calculated fidelity is F=0.99993F=0.99993, using 768×768768\times 768 DMD pixels. The superpixel method reduces the errors when compared to the state of the art Lee holography method for these test fields by 50%50\% and 18%18\%, with a comparable light efficiency of around 5%5\%. Our control software is publicly available.Comment: 9 pages, 6 figure

    Optimal control of light propagation through multiple-scattering media in the presence of noise

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    We study the control of coherent light propagation through multiple-scattering media in the presence of measurement noise. In our experiments, we use a two-step optimization procedure to find the optimal incident wavefront. We conclude that the degree of optimal control of coherent light propagation through a multiple-scattering medium is only determined by the number of photoelectrons detected per single speckle spot. The prediction of our model agrees well with the experimental results. Our results offer opportunities for imaging applications through scattering media such as biological tissue in the shot noise limit

    Light propagation and emission in complex photonic media

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    We provide an introduction to complex photonic media, that is, composite materials with spatial inhomogeneities that are distributed over length scales comparable to or smaller than the wavelength of light. This blossoming field is firmly rooted in condensed matter physics, in optics, and in materials science. Many stimulating analogies exist with other wave phenomena such as sound and seismology, X-rays, neutrons. The field has a rich history, which has led to many applications in lighting, novel lasers, light harvesting, microscopy, and bio optics. We provide a brief overview of complex photonic media with different classes of spatial order, varying from completely random to long-periodically ordered structures, quasi crystalline and aperiodic structures, and arrays of cavities. In addition to shaping optical waves by suitable photonic nanostructures, the realization is quickly arising that the spatial shaping of optical wavefronts with spatial light modulators dramatically increases the number of control parameters. As a result, it is becoming possible for instance to literally see through completely opaque complex media. We discuss a unified view of complex photonic media by means of a photonic interaction strength parameter. This parameter gauges the interaction of light with any complex photonic medium, and allows to compare complex media from different classes for similar applications.Comment: 8 pages, 2 figures, Light Localisation and Lasing: Random and Quasi-Random Photonic Structures, Eds. M. Ghulinyan and L. Pavesi, (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 2015) Ch. 1, p.

    Gain narrowing in few-atom systems

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    Using a density matrix approach, we study the simplest systems that display both gain and feedback: clusters of 2 to 5 atoms, one of which is pumped. The other atoms supply feedback through multiple scattering of light. We show that, if the atoms are in each other's near-field, the system exhibits large gain narrowing and spectral mode redistribution. The observed phenomena are more pronounced if the feedback is enhanced. Our system is to our knowledge the simplest exactly solvable microscopic system which shows the approach to laser oscillation

    Pathlengths of open channels in multiple scattering media

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    We report optical measurements of the spectral width of open transmission channels in a three-dimensional diffusive medium. The light transmission through a sample is enhanced by efficiently coupling to open transmission channels using repeated digital optical phase conjugation. The spectral properties are investigated by enhancing the transmission, fixing the incident wavefront and scanning the wavelength of the laser. We measure the transmitted field to extract the field correlation function and the enhancement of the total transmission. We find that optimizing the total transmission leads to a significant increase in the frequency width of the field correlation function. Additionally we find that the enhanced transmission persists over an even larger frequency bandwidth. This result shows open channels in the diffusive regime are spectrally much wider than previous measurements in the localized regime suggest

    Design of a 3D photonic band gap cavity in a diamond-like inverse woodpile photonic crystal

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    We theoretically investigate the design of cavities in a three-dimensional (3D) inverse woodpile photonic crystal. This class of cubic diamond-like crystals has a very broad photonic band gap and consists of two perpendicular arrays of pores with a rectangular structure. The point defect that acts as a cavity is centred on the intersection of two intersecting perpendicular pores with a radius that differs from the ones in the bulk of the crystal. We have performed supercell bandstructure calculations with up to 5×5×55 \times 5 \times 5 unit cells. We find that up to five isolated and dispersionless bands appear within the 3D photonic band gap. For each isolated band, the electric-field energy is localized in a volume centred on the point defect, hence the point defect acts as a 3D photonic band gap cavity. The mode volume of the cavities resonances is as small as 0.8 λ3\lambda^{3} (resonance wavelength cubed), indicating a strong confinement of the light. By varying the radius of the defect pores we found that only donor-like resonances appear for smaller defect radius, whereas no acceptor-like resonances appear for greater defect radius. From a 3D plot of the distribution of the electric-field energy density we conclude that peaks of energy found in sharp edges situated at the point defect, similar to how electrons collect at such features. This is different from what is observed for cavities in non-inverted woodpile structures. Since inverse woodpile crystals can be fabricated from silicon by CMOS-compatible means, we project that single cavities and even cavity arrays can be realized, for wavelength ranges compatible with telecommunication windows in the near infrared.Comment: 11 figure

    Local density of optical states in the band gap of a finite photonic crystal

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    We study the local density of states (LDOS) in a finite photonic crystal, in particular in the frequency range of the band gap. We propose a new point of view on the band gap, which we consider to be the result of vacuum fluctuations in free space that tunnel in the forbidden range in the crystal. As a result, we arrive at a model for the LDOS that is in two major items modified compared to the well-known expression for infinite crystals. Firstly, we modify the Dirac delta functions to become Lorentzians with a width set by the crystal size. Secondly, building on characterization of the fields versus frequency and position we calculated the fields in the band gap. We start from the fields at the band edges, interpolated in space and position, and incorporating the exponential damping in the band gap. We compare our proposed model to exact calculations in one dimension using the transfer matrix method and find very good agreement. Notably, we find that in finite crystals, the LDOS depends on frequency, on position, and on crystal size, in stark contrast to the well-known results for infinite crystals.Comment: 22 pages, 8 figure

    Intrinsic fluctuations in random lasers

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    We present a quantitative experimental and theoretical study of shot-to-shot intensity fluctuations in the emitted light of a random laser. A model that clarifies these intrinsic fluctuations is developed. We describe the output versus input power graphs of the random laser with an effective spontaneous emission factor (beta factor).Comment: accepted by Phys. Rev. A. submitted; 7 pages, 5 figure
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