1,814 research outputs found

    Les métamorphoses de la souveraineté

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    Since Jean Bodin, sovereignty has been theorized as an absolute power belonging to the State and to the royal power. Sovereignty in French law is exercised by the Nation-State, because of the unwavering and historical link between the Nation and the State. Today, this statement is amended, since the exercise of national sovereignty only passes through the sovereignty of the State. The Nation and the State are integrated into a fragmented world, on a background of globalization, economic and environmental problems. The Nation continues to exist, despite crises, tensions and communalism. If internally, it continues to be confronted with challenges, its interest lies on the external sphere, where it is compared to other Nations. The State adapts itself, internally by implementing decentralization to be closer to its citizens, and externally, by participating in the construction of the European Union. The State is forced to accept competition. It is both actor and spectator of the evolution of its sovereignty. The construction of the European Union provides a genuine experimentation of shared sovereignty. It implements a division of sovereign powers between the States and the Union, which over time, has become increasingly important, to the point that it now touches the core of the State\u27s sovereign power. The decentralization process involves a diffusion of power in the State. It does not call into question sovereignty as such, but rather its absolute definition. The concept of sovereignty is therefore more relative, and its relevance is challenged. However, if the characterization of the power of the State can no longer fully enter the absolute criteria identified by J. Bodin, this power continues nevertheless to be specific. For the State, the issue remains the conservation of its place in the world, mainly in terms of democratic power, based on national sovereignty

    On the functional form of the metallicity-giant planet correlation

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    It is generally accepted that the presence of a giant planet is strongly dependent on the stellar metallicity. A stellar mass dependence has also been investigated, but this dependence does not seem as strong as the metallicity dependence. Even for metallicity, however, the exact form of the correlation has not been established. In this paper, we test several scenarios for describing the frequency of giant planets as a function of its host parameters. We perform this test on two volume-limited samples (from CORALIE and HARPS). By using a Bayesian analysis, we quantitatively compared the different scenarios. We confirm that giant planet frequency is indeed a function of metallicity. However, there is no statistical difference between a constant or an exponential function for stars with subsolar metallicities contrary to what has been previously stated in the literature. The dependence on stellar mass could neither be confirmed nor be discarded.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures, accepted in A&

    Supporting novel home network management interfaces with Openflow and NOX

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    The Homework project has examined redesign of existing home network infrastructures to better support the needs and requirements of actual home users. Integrating results from several ethnographic studies, we have designed and built a home networking platform providing detailed per-flow measurement and management capabilities supporting several novel management interfaces. This demo specifically shows these new visualization and control interfaces, and describes the broader benefits of taking an integrated view of the networking infrastructure, realised through our router's augmented measurement and control APIs. Aspects of this work have been published: the Homework Database in Internet Management (IM) 2011 and implications of the ethnographic results are to appear at the SIGCOMM W-MUST workshop 2011. Separate, more detailed expositions of the interface elements and system performance and implications are currently under submission at other venues. A partial code release is already available and we anticipate fuller public beta release by Q4 2011

    Beyond Node Degree: Evaluating AS Topology Models

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    This is the accepted version of 'Beyond Node Degree: Evaluating AS Topology Models', archived originally at arXiv:0807.2023v1 [cs.NI] 13 July 2008.Many models have been proposed to generate Internet Autonomous System (AS) topologies, most of which make structural assumptions about the AS graph. In this paper we compare AS topology generation models with several observed AS topologies. In contrast to most previous works, we avoid making assumptions about which topological properties are important to characterize the AS topology. Our analysis shows that, although matching degree-based properties, the existing AS topology generation models fail to capture the complexity of the local interconnection structure between ASs. Furthermore, we use BGP data from multiple vantage points to show that additional measurement locations significantly affect local structure properties, such as clustering and node centrality. Degree-based properties, however, are not notably affected by additional measurements locations. These observations are particularly valid in the core. The shortcomings of AS topology generation models stems from an underestimation of the complexity of the connectivity in the core caused by inappropriate use of BGP data

    New and updated stellar parameters for 71 evolved planet hosts. On the metallicity - giant planet connection

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    It is still being debated whether the well-known metallicity - giant planet correlation for dwarf stars is also valid for giant stars. For this reason, having precise metallicities is very important. Different methods can provide different results that lead to discrepancies in the analysis of planet hosts. To study the impact of different analyses on the metallicity scale for evolved stars, we compare different iron line lists to use in the atmospheric parameter derivation of evolved stars. Therefore, we use a sample of 71 evolved stars with planets. With these new homogeneous parameters, we revisit the metallicity - giant planet connection for evolved stars. A spectroscopic analysis based on Kurucz models in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) was performed through the MOOG code to derive the atmospheric parameters. Two different iron line list sets were used, one built for cool FGK stars in general, and the other for giant FGK stars. Masses were calculated through isochrone fitting, using the Padova models. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests (K-S tests) were then performed on the metallicity distributions of various different samples of evolved stars and red giants. All parameters compare well using a line list set, designed specifically for cool and solar-like stars to provide more accurate temperatures. All parameters derived with this line list set are preferred and are thus adopted for future analysis. We find that evolved planet hosts are more metal-poor than dwarf stars with giant planets. However, a bias in giant stellar samples that are searched for planets is present. Because of a colour cut-off, metal-rich low-gravity stars are left out of the samples, making it hard to compare dwarf stars with giant stars. Furthermore, no metallicity enhancement is found for red giants with planets (log⁥g<3.0\log g < 3.0\,dex) with respect to red giants without planets.Comment: 22 pages, 10 figures, 12 tables, accepted to A&

    New and updated stellar parameters for 90 transit hosts. The effect of the surface gravity

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    Context. Precise stellar parameters are crucial in exoplanet research for correctly determining of the planetary parameters. For stars hosting a transiting planet, determining of the planetary mass and radius depends on the stellar mass and radius, which in turn depend on the atmospheric stellar parameters. Different methods can provide different results, which leads to different planet characteristics.}%Spectroscopic surface gravities have shown to be poorly constrained, but the photometry of the transiting planet can provide an independent measurement of the surface gravity. Aims. In this paper, we use a uniform method to spectroscopically derive stellar atmospheric parameters, chemical abundances, stellar masses, and stellar radii for a sample of 90 transit hosts. Surface gravities are also derived photometrically using the stellar density as derived from the light curve. We study the effect of using these different surface gravities on the determination of the chemical abundances and the stellar mass and radius. Methods. A spectroscopic analysis based on Kurucz models in LTE was performed through the MOOG code to derive the atmospheric parameters and the chemical abundances. The photometric surface gravity was determined through isochrone fitting and the use of the stellar density, directly determined from the light curve. Stellar masses and radii are determined through calibration formulae. Results. Spectroscopic and photometric surface gravities differ, but this has very little effect on the precise determination of the stellar mass in our spectroscopic analysis. The stellar radius, and hence the planetary radius, is most affected by the surface gravity discrepancies. For the chemical abundances, the difference is, as expected, only noticable for the abundances derived from analyzing of lines of ionized species.Comment: 12 pages, 6 figures, 5 tables, accepted to A&

    A new analysis of the WASP-3 system: no evidence for an additional companion

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    In this work we investigate the problem concerning the presence of additional bodies gravitationally bounded with the WASP-3 system. We present eight new transits of this planet and analyse all the photometric and radial velocity data published so far. We did not observe significant periodicities in the Fourier spectrum of the observed minus calculated (O-C) transit timing and radial velocity diagrams (the highest peak having false-alarm probabilities of 56 per cent and 31 per cent, respectively) or long-term trends. Combining all the available information, we conclude that the radial velocity and transit timing techniques exclude, at 99 per cent confidence limit, any perturber more massive than M \gtrsim 100 M_Earth with periods up to 10 times the period of the inner planet. We also investigate the possible presence of an exomoon on this system and determined that considering the scatter of the O-C transit timing residuals a coplanar exomoon would likely produce detectable transits. This hypothesis is however apparently ruled out by observations conducted by other researchers. In case the orbit of the moon is not coplanar the accuracy of our transit timing and transit duration measurements prevents any significant statement. Interestingly, on the basis of our reanalysis of SOPHIE data we noted that WASP-3 passed from a less active (log R'_hk=-4.95) to a more active (log R'_hk=-4.8) state during the 3 yr monitoring period spanned by the observations. Despite no clear spot crossing has been reported for this system, this analysis claims for a more intensive monitoring of the activity level of this star in order to understand its impact on photometric and radial velocity measurements.Comment: MNRAS accepted (14/08/2012