2,111 research outputs found

    A fortune is near at hand: White land buyers on the Nemaha Half-Breed Tract, 1857-1860

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    Throughout the 19th century, the federal government promoted the assimilation of Native Americans as individuals within white society. Allotment of land in severalty, or the granting of land to individual Indians, was one means to achieve assimilation because it was believed that Indians would adopt the lifestyle of white farmers once they received land. Though the attempt generally failed, the government remailed undeterred in its efforts to achieve that end. In 1887, Congress passed the Dawes Severalty Act which made allotment in severalty the standard policy on most reservations throughout the United States. One clear failure of allotment in severalty occurred on the Nemaha Half-Breed Tract, a reservation established in Nebraska to benefit the mixed-bloods of several Great Plains tribes. Though Congress created the reservation by treaty in 11830, it did not begin to allot the land until 1857. Once the land became available to the mixed-bloods, most of them sold their allotments to whites. This thesis describes the major purchasers of mixed-blood land on the Half-Breed Tract, including James W. Denver, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs; Stephen F. Nuckolls, the founder of Nebraska City; a group of German immigrants who sought to establish a socialistic society at their settlement called Arago; and several prominent local land speculators

    Assessing the Continuum of Care Pathway for Maternal Health in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa

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    We assess how countries in regions of the world where maternal mortality is highest - South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa - are performing with regards to providing women with vital elements of the continuum of care

    Prevalence of Noncardiac Findings in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Purpose. We sought to determine the prevalence of clinically significant non-cardiac abnormalities found in pediatric and adult patients undergoing cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI), and understand the impact of age on it's occurrence. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed all patients undergoing CMRI between May 2004 and July 2007. Findings were considered significant if they required radiographic or clinical follow-up. Results. A total of 408 patients underwent CMRI during the study period. Twenty two (16%) pediatric patients (age < 19 years, n = 135) were found to have a total of 22 non- cardiac abnormalities, 3 of which were clinically significant. Sixty four (23%) adult patients (age > 19 years, n = 273) were found to have a total of 77 non-cardiac abnormalities, 33 of which were clinically significant. The prevalence of clinically significant non-cardiac abnormalities was 2% in the pediatric cohort and 11% in the adult cohort (P = 0.05). Within the adult population, the prevalence of significant non-cardiac abnormalities increased with advancing age (P = 0.05). Conclusions. In a population of unselected patients undergoing CMRI, unanticipated noncardiac abnormalities were frequently seen. A small number of these were significant, with the prevalence increasing with age

    An examination of resting-state functional connectivity in patients with active Crohn’s disease

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    BackgroundAlterations in resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) in Crohn’s Disease (CD) have been documented in default mode network (DMN) and frontal parietal network (FPN) areas, visual, cerebellar, salience and attention resting-state-networks (RSNs), constituting a CD specific neural phenotype. To date, most studies are in patients in remission, with limited studies in active disease.MethodsTwenty five active CD cases and 25 age-, BMI- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited to a resting-state-functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI) study. Active disease was defined as C-reactive protein&gt;5 mg/dL, faecal calprotectin&gt;250 μg/g, or through ileocolonoscopy or MRE. rs-fMRI data were analysed using independent component analysis (ICA) and dual regression. Differences in RSNs between HCs and active CD were assessed, and rs-FC was associated with disease duration and abdominal pain.ResultsIncreased connectivity in the FPN (fusiform gyrus, thalamus, caudate, posterior cingulate cortex, postcentral gyrus) and visual RSN (orbital frontal cortex) were observed in CD versus HC. Decreased activity was observed in the salience network (cerebellum, postcentral gyrus), DMN (parahippocampal gyrus, cerebellum), and cerebellar network (occipital fusiform gyrus, cerebellum) in CD versus HCs. Greater abdominal pain scores were associated with lower connectivity in the precuneus (visual network) and parietal operculum (salience network), and higher connectivity in the cerebellum (frontal network). Greater disease duration was associated with greater connectivity in the middle temporal gyrus and planum temporale (visual network).ConclusionAlterations in rs-FC in active CD in RSNs implicated in cognition, attention, emotion, and pain may represent neural correlates of chronic systemic inflammation, abdominal pain, disease duration, and severity

    Aerosol emission from the respiratory tract:an analysis of aerosol generation from oxygen delivery systems

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    INTRODUCTION: continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) provide enhanced oxygen delivery and respiratory support for patients with severe COVID-19. CPAP and HFNO are currently designated as aerosol-generating procedures despite limited high-quality experimental data. We aimed to characterise aerosol emission from HFNO and CPAP and compare with breathing, speaking and coughing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy volunteers were recruited to breathe, speak and cough in ultra-clean, laminar flow theatres followed by using CPAP and HFNO. Aerosol emission was measured using two discrete methodologies, simultaneously. Hospitalised patients with COVID-19 had cough recorded using the same methodology on the infectious diseases ward. RESULTS: In healthy volunteers (n=25 subjects; 531 measures), CPAP (with exhalation port filter) produced less aerosol than breathing, speaking and coughing (even with large >50 L/min face mask leaks). Coughing was associated with the highest aerosol emissions of any recorded activity. HFNO was associated with aerosol emission, however, this was from the machine. Generated particles were small (<1 µm), passing from the machine through the patient and to the detector without coalescence with respiratory aerosol, thereby unlikely to carry viral particles. More aerosol was generated in cough from patients with COVID-19 (n=8) than volunteers. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy volunteers, standard non-humidified CPAP is associated with less aerosol emission than breathing, speaking or coughing. Aerosol emission from the respiratory tract does not appear to be increased by HFNO. Although direct comparisons are complex, cough appears to be the main aerosol-generating risk out of all measured activities

    Patient outcomes after hospitalisation with COVID-19 and implications for follow-up:results from a prospective UK cohort

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    The longer-term consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection are uncertain. Consecutive patients hospitalised with COVID-19 were prospectively recruited to this observational study (n=163). At 8–12 weeks postadmission, survivors were invited to a systematic clinical follow-up. Of 131 participants, 110 attended the follow-up clinic. Most (74%) had persistent symptoms (notably breathlessness and excessive fatigue) and limitations in reported physical ability. However, clinically significant abnormalities in chest radiograph, exercise tests, blood tests and spirometry were less frequent (35%), especially in patients not requiring supplementary oxygen during their acute infection (7%). Results suggest that a holistic approach focusing on rehabilitation and general well-being is paramount

    The Early Stage of Bacterial Genome-Reductive Evolution in the Host

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    The equine-associated obligate pathogen Burkholderia mallei was developed by reductive evolution involving a substantial portion of the genome from Burkholderia pseudomallei, a free-living opportunistic pathogen. With its short history of divergence (∼3.5 myr), B. mallei provides an excellent resource to study the early steps in bacterial genome reductive evolution in the host. By examining 20 genomes of B. mallei and B. pseudomallei, we found that stepwise massive expansion of IS (insertion sequence) elements ISBma1, ISBma2, and IS407A occurred during the evolution of B. mallei. Each element proliferated through the sites where its target selection preference was met. Then, ISBma1 and ISBma2 contributed to the further spread of IS407A by providing secondary insertion sites. This spread increased genomic deletions and rearrangements, which were predominantly mediated by IS407A. There were also nucleotide-level disruptions in a large number of genes. However, no significant signs of erosion were yet noted in these genes. Intriguingly, all these genomic modifications did not seriously alter the gene expression patterns inherited from B. pseudomallei. This efficient and elaborate genomic transition was enabled largely through the formation of the highly flexible IS-blended genome and the guidance by selective forces in the host. The detailed IS intervention, unveiled for the first time in this study, may represent the key component of a general mechanism for early bacterial evolution in the host

    Epigenetic activation of a cryptic TBC1D16 transcript enhances melanoma progression by targeting EGFR

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    Metastasis is respoMetastasis is responsible for most cancer-related deaths, and, among common tumor types, melanoma is one with great potential to metastasize. Here we study the contribution of epigenetic changes to the dissemination process by analyzing the changes that occur at the DNA methylation level between primary cancer cells and metastases. We found a hypomethylation event that reactivates a cryptic transcript of the Rab GTPase activating protein TBC1D16 (TBC1D16-47 kDa; referred to hereafter as TBC1D16-47KD) to be a characteristic feature of the metastatic cascade. This short isoform of TBC1D16 exacerbates melanoma growth and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. By combining immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we identified RAB5C as a new TBC1D16 target and showed that it regulates EGFR in melanoma cells. We also found that epigenetic reactivation of TBC1D16-47KD is associated with poor clinical outcome in melanoma, while conferring greater sensitivity to BRAF and MEK inhibitors

    Taxes and Fiscal Sociology

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    This article reviews recent research in fiscal sociology. We specifically examine contributions to the study of taxation that illuminate core issues in the sociology of contemporary capitalism, including the causes of poverty and inequality in rich countries and of inequality between rich and poor countries. Research on developed countries suggests that tax policy changes are important for explaining rising income inequality, tax policies may structure durable inequalities of race and gender, and earnings-conditional tax subsidies may alleviate poverty more effectively and with less stigma than means-tested social spending. Scholars also find the most generous welfare states rely the most heavily on regressive taxes, although there is disagreement over how this association arises. Comparative research on developing countries shows consumption taxes are more conducive to growth than taxes on income, tax-financed spending benefits growth if it is spent on productive investments, and taxation strengthened democracy and state building in medieval and early modern Europe. However, there is disagreement as to whether taxation contributes to state building in contemporary developing countries and whether foreign aid undermines democracy by undermining taxation. These questions are the focus of considerable current research
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