552 research outputs found

    A Method To Remove Fringes From Images Using Wavelets

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    We have developed a new method that uses wavelet analysis to remove interference fringe patterns from images. This method is particularly useful for flat fields in the common case where fringes vary between the calibration and object data. We analyze the efficacy of this method by creating fake flats with fictitious fringes and removing the fringes. We find that the method removes 90% of the fringe pattern if its amplitude is equal to the random noise level and 60% if the fringe amplitude is 1/10\approx 1/10 of the noise level. We also present examples using real flat field frames. A routine written in the Interactive Data Language (IDL) that implements this algorithm is available from the authors and as an attachment to this paper.Comment: 7 pages, 14 figures. Accepted to the Astrophysical Journal. (The quality of the figures in this preprint has been downgraded in order to fulfill arXiv requirements. Check journal for the high-quality figures

    IR Colors and Sizes of Faint Galaxies

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    We present J and Ks band galaxy counts down to J=24 and Ks=22.5 obtained with the new infrared imager/spectrometer, SOFI, at the ESO New Technology Telescope. The co-addition of short, dithered, images led to a total exposure time of 256 and 624 minutes respectively, over an area of 20\sim20 arcmin2^2 centered on the NTT Deep Field. The total number of sources with S/N>5>5 is 1569 in the J sample and 1025 in the Ks-selected sample. These are the largest samples currently available at these depths. A dlogNlogN/dmm relation with slope of 0.36\sim0.36 in J and 0.38\sim0.38 in Ks is found with no evident sign of a decline at the magnitude limit. The observed surface density of ``small'' sources is much lower than ``large'' ones at bright magnitudes and rises more steeply than the large sources to fainter magnitudes. Fainter than J22.5J\sim22.5 and Ks21.5\sim21.5, small sources dominate the number counts. Galaxies get redder in J-K down to J20\sim20 and Ks19\sim19. At fainter magnitudes, the median color becomes bluer with an accompanying increase in the compactness of the galaxies. We show that the blue, small sources which dominate the faint IR counts are not compatible with a high redshift (z>1z>1) population. On the contrary, the observed color and compactness trends, together with the absence of a turnover at faint magnitudes and the dominance of small sources, can be naturally explained by an increasing contribution of sub-LL^* galaxies when going to fainter apparent magnitudes. Such evidence strongly supports the existence of a steeply rising (α1\alpha\ll-1) faint end of the local infrared luminosity function of galaxies - at least for luminosities L<0.01LL<0.01L^*.Comment: Accepted for publication on A&A; 15 pages, 13 figure

    Spatially Resolved Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Seyfert 2 Galaxies Mk 1066, NGC 2110, NGC 4388, and Mk 3

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    We present near-infrared spectra with resolutions of lambda/dlambda~1200 in the emission lines of Pa-beta, [FeII] (1.2567um), Br-gamma, and H2 v=1-0S(1) of the nuclei and circumnuclear regions of the four Seyfert 2 galaxies Mk 1066, NGC 2110, NGC 4388, and Mk 3. All of these galaxies show strong near-infrared line emission that is detected at radii several times the spatial resolution, corresponding to projected physical scales of 0.07 to 0.7 kpc. Velocity gradients are detected in these nuclei, as are spatial variations in line profiles and flux ratios. We compare the spatial and velocity distribution of the line emission to previously observed optical line and radio emission. The evidence indicates that the [FeII] emission is associated with the Seyfert activity in the galaxies. Our data are consistent with X-ray heating being responsible for most of the [FeII] emission, although differences in [FeII] and Pa-beta line profiles associated with radio emission suggests that the [FeII] emission is enhanced by fast shocks associated with radio outflows. The H2 emission is not as strongly associated with outflows or ionization cones as is the emission in other lines, but rather appears to be primarily associated with the disk of the galaxy.Comment: 35 pages, 24 figure

    Photometric redshifts and selection of high redshift galaxies in the NTT and Hubble Deep Fields

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    We present and compare in this paper new photometric redshift catalogs of the galaxies in three public fields: the NTT Deep Field, the HDF-N and the HDF-S. Photometric redshifts have been obtained for thewhole sample, by adopting a χ2\chi^2 minimization technique on a spectral library drawn from the Bruzual and Charlot synthesis models, with the addition of dust and intergalactic absorption. The accuracy, determined from 125 galaxies with known spectroscopic redshifts, is σz0.08(0.3)\sigma_z\sim 0.08 (0.3) in the redshift intervals z=01.5(1.53.5)z=0-1.5 (1.5-3.5). The global redshift distribution of I-selected galaxies shows a distinct peak at intermediate redshifts, z~0.6 at I_{AB}<26 and z~0.8 at I_{AB}<27.5 followed by a tail extending to z~6. We also present for the first time the redshift distribution of the total IR-selected sample to faint limits (Ks21Ks \leq 21 and J22J\leq22). It is found that the number density of galaxies at 1.25<z<1.5 is ~ 0.1 /arcmin^22 at J<=21 and ~1./arcmin^2} at J<22, and drops to 0.3/arcmin^2 (at J<22) at 1.5<z<2. The HDFs data sets are used to compare the different results from color selection criteria and photometric redshifts in detecting galaxies in the redshift range 3.5<z<4.5 Photometric redshifts predict a number of high z candidates in both the HDF-N and HDF-S that is nearly 2 times larger than color selection criteria, and it is shown that this is primarily due to the inclusion of dusty models that were discarded in the original color selection criteria by Madau et al 1998. In several cases, the selection of these objects is made possible by the constraints from the IR bands. Finally, it is shown that galactic M stars may mimic z>5 candidates in the HDF filter set and that the 4 brightest candidates at z>5z>5 in the HDF-S are indeed most likely M stars. (ABRIDGED)Comment: Version accepted on July, 20, 2000. To appear on Astronomical Journal, Nov 2000. The data and photometric redshift catalogs presented here are available on line at http://www.mporzio.astro.it/HIGH

    The nature and evolution of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies: A mid-infrared spectroscopic survey

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    We report the first results of a low resolution mid-infrared spectroscopic survey of an unbiased, far-infrared selected sample of 60 ultraluminous infrared galaxies, using ISOPHOT-S on board ISO. We use the ratio of the 7.7um `PAH' emission feature to the local continuum as a discriminator between starburst and AGN activity. About 80% of all the ULIRGs are found to be predominantly powered by star formation but the fraction of AGN powered objects increases with luminosity. Observed ratios of the PAH features in ULIRGs differ slightly from those in lower luminosity starbursts. This can be plausibly explained by the higher extinction and/or different physical conditions in the interstellar medium of ULIRGs. The PAH feature-to-continuum ratio is anticorrelated with the ratio of feature-free 5.9um continuum to the IRAS 60um continuum, confirming suggestions that strong mid-IR continuum is a prime AGN signature. The location of starburst-dominated ULIRGs in such a diagram is consistent with previous ISO-SWS spectroscopy which implies significant extinction even in the mid-infrared. We have searched for indications that ULIRGs which are advanced mergers might be more AGN-like, as postulated by the classical evolutionary scenario. No such trend has been found amongst those objects for which near infrared images are available to assess their likely merger status.Comment: aastex, 4 eps figures. Revised version, accepted by ApJ (Letters