239 research outputs found

    Tuberculosis from Mycobacterium bovis in Binational Communities, United States

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    The incidence in San Diego is increasing and is concentrated mostly in persons of Mexican origin

    Molecular Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in a Sentinel Surveillance Population

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    We conducted a population-based study to assess demographic and risk-factor correlates for the most frequently occurring Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes from tuberculosis (TB) patients. The study included all incident, culture-positive TB patients from seven sentinel surveillance sites in the United States from 1996 to 2000. M. tuberculosis isolates were genotyped by IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism and spoligotyping. Genotyping was available for 90% of 11,923 TB patients. Overall, 48% of cases had isolates that matched those from another patient, including 64% of U.S.-born and 35% of foreign-born patients. By logistic regression analysis, risk factors for clustering of genotypes were being male, U.S.-born, black, homeless, and infected with HIV; having pulmonary disease with cavitations on chest radiograph and a sputum smear with acid-fast bacilli; and excessive drug or alcohol use. Molecular characterization of TB isolates permitted risk correlates for clusters and specific genotypes to be described and provided information regarding cluster dynamics over time

    The Impact of Paid Sick Days on Public Health in an Elementary School Population

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    Background: The societal impact of Paid Sick Days (PSDs) has not been fully addressed in Vermont. Evidence suggests that PSDs benefit the well being of the employee in addition to saving expenses for the employer and the state. PSDs prevent the spread of diseases such as influenza and allow the ailing individual to receive proper medical attention. Inadequate PSDs not only affect the individual who needs time away from work due to illness, but extend to their entire family. Studies have documented the adverse effects from lack of PSDs on the ability for parents to care for their child. The following facts are known: • 7 states require private sector employees to provide “flexible” PSDs for family members (Vermont does not). • 66% of employers in Vermont do not provide PSDs for their employees. • Parents with PSDs or vacation are 5.2 times more likely to take time off from work to care for their sick child. We hypothesize that elementary aged children of working parents, who have an insufficient amount of PSDs, are more likely to attend school with an acute illness and are more likely to receive inadequate health care (i.e., miss well child check ups).https://scholarworks.uvm.edu/comphp_gallery/1015/thumbnail.jp

    Dear reviewers: Responses to common reviewer critiques about infant neuroimaging studies

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    The field of adult neuroimaging relies on well-established principles in research design, imaging sequences, processing pipelines, as well as safety and data collection protocols. The field of infant magnetic resonance imaging, by comparison, is a young field with tremendous scientific potential but continuously evolving standards. The present article aims to initiate a constructive dialog between researchers who grapple with the challenges and inherent limitations of a nascent field and reviewers who evaluate their work. We address 20 questions that researchers commonly receive from research ethics boards, grant, and manuscript reviewers related to infant neuroimaging data collection, safety protocols, study planning, imaging sequences, decisions related to software and hardware, and data processing and sharing, while acknowledging both the accomplishments of the field and areas of much needed future advancements. This article reflects the cumulative knowledge of experts in the FIT\u27NG community and can act as a resource for both researchers and reviewers alike seeking a deeper understanding of the standards and tradeoffs involved in infant neuroimaging

    Dear reviewers: responses to common reviewer critiques about infant neuroimaging studies

    Get PDF
    The field of adult neuroimaging relies on well-established principles in research design, imaging sequences, processing pipelines, as well as safety and data collection protocols. The field of infant magnetic resonance imaging, by comparison, is a young field with tremendous scientific potential but continuously evolving standards. The present article aims to initiate a constructive dialog between researchers who grapple with the challenges and inherent limitations of a nascent field and reviewers who evaluate their work. We address 20 questions that researchers commonly receive from research ethics boards, grant, and manuscript reviewers related to infant neuroimaging data collection, safety protocols, study planning, imaging sequences, decisions related to software and hardware, and data processing and sharing, while acknowledging both the accomplishments of the field and areas of much needed future advancements. This article reflects the cumulative knowledge of experts in the FIT'NG community and can act as a resource for both researchers and reviewers alike seeking a deeper understanding of the standards and tradeoffs involved in infant neuroimaging.R01 MH104324 - NIMH NIH HHS; UL1 TR001863 - NCATS NIH HHS; P50 MH115716 - NIMH NIH HHS; K01 MH108741 - NIMH NIH HHS; TL1 TR001864 - NCATS NIH HHS; R01 MH118285 - NIMH NIH HHS; U01 MH110274 - NIMH NIH HHS; P50 MH100029 - NIMH NIH HHS; ZIA MH002782 - Intramural NIH HHS; R01 EB027147 - NIBIB NIH HHS; R01 MH119251 - NIMH NIH HHS; UL1 TR003015 - NCATS NIH HHS; F31 HD102156 - NICHD NIH HHS; KL2 TR003016 - NCATS NIH HHS; T32 MH018268 - NIMH NIH HHSPublished versio
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