107 research outputs found

    Weyl and Ricci gauging from the coset construction

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    In this paper we demonstrate how, using the coset construction, a theory can be systematically made Weyl invariant by gauging the scale symmetry. We show that an analog of the inverse Higgs constraint allows the elimination of the Weyl vector (gauge) field in favor of curvatures. We extend the procedure -- previously coined Ricci gauging -- and discuss its subtlety for the case of theories with higher derivatives of conformally variant fields.Comment: 20 pages, no figures -- typos corrected, matches published versio

    Large-N Solution of the Heterotic Weighted Non-Linear Sigma-Model

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    We study a heterotic two-dimensional N=(0,2) gauged non-linear sigma-model whose target space is a weighted complex projective space. We consider the case with N positively and N^~=N_F - N negatively charged fields. This model is believed to give a description of the low-energy physics of a non-Abelian semi-local vortex in a four-dimensional N=2 supersymmetric U(N) gauge theory with N_F > N matter hypermultiplets. The supersymmetry in the latter theory is broken down to N=1 by a mass term for the adjoint fields. We solve the model in the large-N approximation and explore a two-dimensional subset of the mass parameter space for which a discrete Z_{N-N^~} symmetry is preserved. Supersymmetry is generically broken, but it is preserved for special values of the masses where a new branch opens up and the model becomes super-conformal.Comment: 34 pages, 10 figures, references adde

    General coordinate invariance in quantum many-body systems

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    We extend the notion of general coordinate invariance to many-body, not necessarily relativistic, systems. As an application, we investigate nonrelativistic general covariance in Galilei-invariant systems. The peculiar transformation rules for the background metric and gauge fields, first introduced by Son and Wingate in 2005 and refined in subsequent works, follow naturally from our framework. Our approach makes it clear that Galilei or Poincare symmetry is by no means a necessary prerequisite for making the theory invariant under coordinate diffeomorphisms. General covariance merely expresses the freedom to choose spacetime coordinates at will, whereas the true, physical symmetries of the system can be separately implemented as "internal" symmetries within the vielbein formalism. A systematic way to implement such symmetries is provided by the coset construction. We illustrate this point by applying our formalism to nonrelativistic s-wave superfluids.Comment: 14 pages; v2: minor update with additional references and acknowledgments, version to appear in Phys. Rev.

    Monopole decay in the external electric field

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    The possibility of the magnetic monopole decay in the constant electric field is investigated and the exponential factor in the probability is obtained. Corrections due to Coulomb interaction are calculated. The relation between masses of particles for the process to exist is obtained.Comment: 13 pages, 8 figure

    (Re-)Inventing the Relativistic Wheel: Gravity, Cosets, and Spinning Objects

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    Space-time symmetries are a crucial ingredient of any theoretical model in physics. Unlike internal symmetries, which may or may not be gauged and/or spontaneously broken, space-time symmetries do not admit any ambiguity: they are gauged by gravity, and any conceivable physical system (other than the vacuum) is bound to break at least some of them. Motivated by this observation, we study how to couple gravity with the Goldstone fields that non-linearly realize spontaneously broken space-time symmetries. This can be done in complete generality by weakly gauging the Poincare symmetry group in the context of the coset construction. To illustrate the power of this method, we consider three kinds of physical systems coupled to gravity: superfluids, relativistic membranes embedded in a higher dimensional space, and rotating point-like objects. This last system is of particular importance as it can be used to model spinning astrophysical objects like neutron stars and black holes. Our approach provides a systematic and unambiguous parametrization of the degrees of freedom of these systems.Comment: 30 page

    Spectral Flow in Instanton Computations and the \boldmath{\b} functions

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    We discuss various differences in the instanton-based calculations of the β\beta functions in theories such as Yang-Mills and CP(N ⁣ ⁣1)\mathbb{CP}(N\!-\!1) on one hand, and λϕ4\lambda\phi^4 theory with Symanzik's sign-reversed prescription for the coupling constant λ\lambda on the other hand. Although the aforementioned theories are asymptotically free, in the first two theories, instantons are topological, whereas the Fubini-Lipatov instanton in the third theory is topologically trivial. The spectral structure in the background of the Fubini-Lipatov instanton can be continuously deformed into that in the flat background, establishing a one-to-one correspondence between the two spectra. However, when considering topologically nontrivial backgrounds for Yang-Mills and CP(N ⁣ ⁣1)\mathbb{CP}(N\!-\!1) theories, the spectrum undergoes restructuring. In these cases, a mismatch between the spectra around the instanton and the trivial vacuum occurs.Comment: 22 page

    Identifying Large Charge Operators

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    The Large Charge sector of Conformal Field Theory (CFT) can generically be described through a semiclassical expansion around a superfluid background. In this work, focussing on U(1)U(1) invariant Wilson-Fisher fixed points, we study the spectrum of spinning large charge operators. For sufficiently low spin these correspond to the phonon excitations of the superfluid state. We discuss the organization of these states into conformal multiplets and the form of the corresponding composite operators in the free field theory limit. The latter entails a mapping, built order-by-order in the inverse charge n1n^{-1}, between the Fock space of vacuum fluctuations and the Fock space of fluctuations around the superfluid state. We discuss the limitations of the semiclassical method, and find that the phonon description breaks down for spins of order n1/2n^{1/2} while the computation of observables is valid up to spins of order nn. Finally, we apply the semiclassical method to compute some conformal 3-point and 4-point functions, and analyze the conformal block decomposition of the latter with our knowledge of the operator spectrum.Comment: 45 pages + appendices, 5 figure