824 research outputs found

    The ACS LCID Project: data reduction strategy

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    During Cycle 14 a total of 113 HST orbits were secured to observe five isolated dwarf galaxies, namely Tucana, LGS3, LeoA, IC1613, and Cetus. The aim of the project is a full characterization of the stellar content of these galaxies, in term of their SFH, radial distributions, halo populations and variable stars. Deep (V~29) F475W, F814W data allowed us to fully sample all the evolutionary phases from the tip of the Red Giant Branch (RGB) to well below the old Main Sequence Turnoff (MSTO). Here we describe the observational design, and the reduction and calibration strategy adopted. A comparison of the results obtained using two different packages, ALLFRAME and Dolphot, is presented.Comment: 2 pages, 1 figure. To appear in the Proceedings of IAU Symposium 241: "Stellar Populations as Building Blocks of Galaxies", 10-16 December, 2006 at La Palma, Canary Islands, Spai

    The ACS LCID project VII: the blue stragglers population in the isolated dSph galaxies Cetus and Tucana

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    We present the first investigation of the Blue Straggler star (BSS) population in two isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group, Cetus and Tucana. Deep HST/ACS photometry allowed us to identify samples of 940 and 1214 candidates, respectively. The analysis of the star formation histories of the two galaxies suggests that both host a population of BSSs. Specifically, if the BSS candidates are interpreted as young main sequence stars, they do not conform to their galaxy's age-metallicity relationship. The analysis of the luminosity function and the radial distributions support this conclusion, and suggest a non-collisional mechanism for the BSS formation, from the evolution of primordial binaries. This scenario is also supported by the results of new dynamical simulations presented here. Both galaxies coincide with the relationship between the BSS frequency and the absolute visual magnitude Mv found by Momany et al (2007). If this relationship is confirmed by larger sample, then it could be a valuable tool to discriminate between the presence of BSSs and galaxies hosting truly young populations.Comment: Accepted for publication on ApJ. 15 pages, 3 tables, 13 figures. A version with high resolution figure can be downloaded from http://rialto.ll.iac.es/proyecto/LCID/?p=publication

    Variable Stars in the Cetus dSph Galaxy: Population Gradients and Connections with the Star Formation History

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    We investigate the variable star content of the isolated, Local Group, dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) Cetus. Multi-epoch, wide-field images collected with the VLT/VIMOS camera allowed us to detect 638 variable stars (630 RR Lyrae stars and 8 Anomalous Cepheids), 475 of which are new detections. We present a full catalogue of periods, amplitudes, and mean magnitudes. Motivated by the recent discovery that the pulsational properties of the RR Lyrae stars in the Tucana dSph revealed the presence of a metallicity gradient within the oldest (>10 Gyr old) stellar populations, we investigated the possibility of an analogous effect in Cetus. We found that, despite the obvious radial gradient in the Horizontal Branch (HB) and Red Giant Branch (RGB) morphologies, both becoming bluer on average for increasing distance from the center of Cetus, the properties of the RR Lyrae stars are homogeneous within the investigated area (out to r~15'), with no significant evidence of a radial gradient. We discuss this in connection with the star formation history (SFH) previously derived for the two galaxies. The observed differences between these two systems show that even systems this small show a variety of early evolutionary histories. These differences could be due to different merger or accretion histories.Comment: Accepted for publication on MNRAS. The complete set of light curves and finding charts, together with the full table of the pulsational properties of all variable stars will be available in the on-line edition of the pape

    Distance and reddening of the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822

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    On the basis of a new photometric analysis of the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy NCG 6822 based on observations obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys onboard the Hubble Space Telescope, we have obtained a new estimate of the extinction of two fields located in the southeast region of the galaxy. Because of significant differences in the distance estimates to NGC 6822 available in literature, we decided to provide an independent determination of the distance to this galaxy based on an updated and self-consistent theoretical calibration of the tip of the red giant branch brightness. As a result we newly determined the distance to NGC 6822 to be equal to (m−M)0=23.54±0.05{\rm(m-M)}_0=23.54\pm 0.05, and compared our measurement with the most recent determinations of this distance.Comment: 5 pages, 5 figures, Astronomy & Astrophysics (Research Note), in press (proof correction included

    The origin of the LMC stellar bar: clues from the SFH of the bar and inner disk

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    We discuss the origin of the LMC stellar bar by comparing the star formation histories (SFH) obtained from deep color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) in the bar and in a number of fields in different directions within the inner disk. The CMDs, reaching the oldest main sequence turnoffs in these very crowded fields, have been obtained with VIMOS on the VLT in service mode, under very good seeing conditions. We show that the SFHs of all fields share the same patterns, with consistent variations of the star formation rate as a function of time in all of them. We therefore conclude that no specific event of star formation can be identified with the formation of the LMC bar, which instead likely formed from a redistribution of disk material that occurred when the LMC disk became bar unstable, and shared a common SFH with the inner disk thereafter. The strong similarity between the SFH of the center and edge of the bar rules out significant spatial variations of the SFH across the bar, which are predicted by scenarios of classic bar formation through buckling mechanisms.Comment: MNRAS Letters, accepte

    Artificial Intelligence and Deep Learning-Based System Design for Diabetic Retinopathy Classification

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    One of the biggest causes of avoidable blindness throughout the world is diabetic retinopathy (DR). There is a significant unmet need to test all diabetes patients for DR, and many instances of DR go undetected and untreated. In order to automate DR screening, this research aimed to create reliable diagnostic technologies. In order to reduce the pace of vision loss, it is important to refer eyes suspected of having DR to an ophthalmologist for further assessment and treatment. The primary goal of this research is to improve the classification accuracy for Diabetic Retinopathy (DR). In this script, we present a new neural network model for DR forecasting. The suggested model's accuracy in identifying DR phases was measured against that of regular and ensemble-based models. Various benchmark datasets, including MESSIDOR, IDRID, and APTOS, are used in the studies. The suggested DRPNN algorithm outperformed the competition in experiments assessed using industry-standard criteria

    On the central helium-burning variable stars of the LeoI dwarf spheroidal galaxy

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    We present a study of short period, central helium-burning variable stars in the Local Group dwarf spheroidal galaxy LeoI, including 106 RR Lyrae stars and 51 Cepheids. So far, this is the largest sample of Cepheids and the largest Cepheids to RR Lyrae ratio found in such a kind of galaxy. The comparison with other Local Group dwarf spheroidals, Carina and Fornax, shows that the period distribution of RR Lyrae stars is quite similar, suggesting similar properties of the parent populations, whereas the Cepheid period distribution in LeoI peaks at longer periods (P \sim 1.26d instead of ~0.5d) and spans over a broader range, from 0.5 to 1.78d. Evolutionary and pulsation predictions indicate, assuming a mean metallicity peaked within -1.5<= [Fe/H]<=-1.3, that the current sample of LeoI Cepheids traces a unique mix of Anomalous Cepheids (blue extent of the red--clump, partially electron degenerate central helium-burning stars) and short-period classical Cepheids (blue-loop, quiescent central helium-burning stars). Current evolutionary prescriptions also indicate that the transition mass between the two different groups of stars is MHeF \sim 2.1 Mo, and it is constant for stars metal-poorer than [Fe/H]\sim-0.7. Finally, we briefly outline the different implications of the current findings on the star formation history of LeoI.Comment: 5 Pages, 4 Figures, ApJ letter, accepte

    The ACS LCID project IV: detection of the RGB bump in isolated galaxies of the Local Group

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    We report the detection and analysis of the red giant branch luminosity function bump in a sample of isolated dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. We have designed a new analysis approach comparing the observed color-magnitude diagrams with theoretical best-fit color-magnitude diagrams derived from precise estimates of the star formation histories of each galaxy. This analysis is based on studying the difference between the V-magnitude of the RGB bump and the horizontal branch at the level of the RR Lyrae instability strip (Delta_vhbb) and we discuss here a technique for reliably measuring this quantity in complex stellar systems. By using this approach, we find that the difference between the observed and predicted values of Delta_vhbb is +0.13 +/- 0.14 mag. This is smaller, by about a factor of two, than the well-known discrepancy between theory and observation at low metallicity commonly derived for Galactic globular clusters. This result is confirmed by a comparison between the adopted theoretical framework and empirical estimates of the Delta_vhbb parameter for both a large database of Galactic globular clusters and for four other dSph galaxies for which this estimate is available in the literature. We also investigate the strength of the red giant branch bump feature (R_bump), and find very good agreement between the observed and theoretically predicted R_bump values. This agreement supports the reliability of the evolutionary lifetimes predicted by theoretical models of the evolution of low-mass stars.Comment: Accepted for publication on Ap

    Bayesian inference of kinematic earthquake rupture parameters through fitting of strong motion data

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    Due to uncertainties in data and in forward modelling, the inherent limitations in data coverage and the non-linearity of the governing equation, earthquake source imaging is a problem with multiple solutions. The multiplicity of solutions can be conveniently expressed using a Bayesian approach, which allow to state inferences on model parameters in terms of probability density functions. The estimation of the posterior state of information, expressing the combination of the a priori knowledge on model parameters with the information contained in the data, is achieved in two steps. First, we explore the model space using an evolutionary algorithm to identify good data fitting regions. Secondly, using a neighbourhood algorithm and considering the entire ensemble of models found during the search stage, we compute a geometric approximation of the true posterior that is used to generate a second ensemble of models from which Bayesian inference can be performed. We apply this methodology to infer kinematic parameters of a synthetic fault rupture through fitting of strong motion data. We show how multiple rupture models are able to reproduce the observed waveforms within the same level of fit, suggesting therefore that the solution of the inversion cannot be expressed in terms of a single model but rather as a set of models which show certain statistical properties. For all model parameters we compute the posterior marginal distribution. We show how for some parameters the posterior do not follow a Gaussian distribution rendering the usual characterization in terms of mean value and standard deviation not correct. We compare the posterior marginal distributions with the ‘raw' marginal distributions computed from the ensemble of models generated by the evolutionary algorithm. We show how they are systematically different proving therefore that the search algorithm we adopt cannot be directly used to estimate uncertainties. We also analyse the stability of our inferences comparing the posterior marginals computed by different independent ensembles. The solutions provided by independent explorations are similar but not identical because each ensemble searches the model space differently resulting in different reconstructed posteriors. Our study illustrates how uncertainty estimates derive from the topology of the objective function, and how accurate and reliable resolution analysis is limited by the intrinsic difficulty of mapping the ‘true' structure of the objective functio
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