1,519 research outputs found

    Economic-Based Incentive Schemes for Dynamic Data Management in Mobile P2P Computing

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    Data management in mobile peer to peer (M-P2P) systems needs dynamic data management due to mobility and fragile wireless connection connecting resource constraint devices. Traditional methods of data management and services in mobile P2P environment generally assume all peers to cooperate. Since peer activities in M-P2P are not generally monitored, users assume that they are free to use the resources anyway they like. Under this feeling of freedom, a subset of users (free riders) begins to consume much more resources available on M-P2P than they wish to contribute. In addition, due to the dynamic nature of moving hosts, topology changes very often and traditional schemes fall short in providing reasonable data availability. This becomes much more important in M-P2P where the network communication is generally multi-hop and intermediate peers have to render relay services other than data providers to improve the connectivity. Economic-based incentive schemes have been proposed which may play a better role in inciting free riders to collaborate. The data and service availability can be increased by associating a price with data items and services. In such schemes, peers can bid for better services, intermediate peers can earn incentives by providing relay services and in fact, outgoing peers can lease data items to others to still earn incentives while disconnected. New peers can become data providers by providing hosting services to earn incentives. This tutorial will explore issues involved in managing resources using economic incentives

    Quasi fuzzy delta compact spaces and a few related properties

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    In this paper, we introduce the concept of various types fuzzy delta (δ)(\delta) compactness such as Quasi fuzzy delta compact, Quasi fuzzy countably delta compact, Weakly fuzzy delta compact, aa-delta compact, Strong fuzzy delta compact, Ultra fuzzy delta compact and Fuzzy delta compact and characterize these types of fuzzy delta compactness using the notion of fuzzy upper limit of net of some types of delta (δ)(\delta) closed sets


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    Organic agriculture is rapidly growing around the world (37.2 Million ha in 162 countries) with 1.8 million producers including significant number of organic farmers in developing countries like India. The global market for organic products has reached to US$ 62.8 billion and 86 countries now have an organic legislation (Willer et al, 2013). It is also well recognized now that the organic animal husbandry has not grown as faster as cereal crops, fruits, nuts, spices, tea, coffee and cotton. While organic farming is rapidly gaining ground in developing countries the research and development (R&D) activities in organic animal husbandry is confined to EU and a few other developed countries in North and Australia. There are opportunities as well as challenges in organic livestock production in developing countries which need to be addressed. The organic livestock development opportunities in developing countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America can be enhanced with more scientific research in organic livestock production under local conditions and strengthening institutional support (Chander et al 2011; Nalubwama et al, 2011; Rahmann & Godinho, 2012; Chander et al, 2012). Further to this, here an effort has been made to analyze why animal husbandry is not coming up in developing countries despite good opportunities due to natural advantages, taking India as a case

    Enhancement of quality parameters and shelf-life of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.) by edible coating during storage and transportation

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    The postharvest losses of papaya fruits are important concerns during storage, shipping and marketing; the causes of these postharvest losses include microbial infestation, temperature, inappropriate handling and other factors. Which can be decreased by using edible coatings that have enhanced quality and have a longer shelf life. The effects of three different coating materials-aloe vera gel, ascorbic acid and chitosan on the shelf life and qualitative parameters of papaya fruits that were maintained at room temperature for a period of 15 days were investigated. When compared to fruits that have not been coated, fruits that have been coated with aloe vera gel, ascorbic acid and chitosan retain the original values for all of the qualitative parameters, including total soluble solids (9.9), titratable acidity (0.670 %), ascorbic acid (67.125 100 g/mg), TSS: acid ratio (23.116 percent), total sugar (0.119 %), reducing sugar (24.570 %) and non-reducing. According to the findings of this investigation, the combination of aloe vera gel (50%), chitosan (1%) and ascorbic acid (1%) has the potential to lengthen the shelf life of papaya fruits while maintaining their nutritional qualities, which is significant for the purposes of commercial storage, transportation and sales

    Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Effect of Leaves of Cassia sophera Linn.

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    In the present study, the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extracts of Cassia sophera Linn. leaves was evaluated against carbon-tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced hepatic damage in rats. The extracts at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg were administered orally once daily. The hepatoprotection was assessed in terms of reduction in histological damage, changes in serum enzymes, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, and total protein levels. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and total bilirubin were restored towards the normalization significantly by the extracts. The decreased serum total protein level was significantly normalized. Silymarin was used as standard reference and exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that Cassia sophera leaves have potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats. This study suggests that possible activity may be due to the presence of flavonoids in the extracts

    Efficacy of tolvaptan in reduction of kidney cyst volume and restoration of kidney function in ADPKD in tertiary care hospital

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    Background: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a frequent cause of end-stage renal disease. Despite improvements in blood pressure and conventional treatment, there seems not any significant impact on the need for renal replacement therapy in these cases. Inhibition of cyclic adenosine monophosphate pathway by tolvaptan was efficient in preclinical/animal studies and in clinical studies involving ADPKD patients; tolvaptan (vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist) has been recently released in the market to delay disease progression. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of tolvaptan in reduction of total kidney volume (TKV), total renal cyst volume, and decrease of progression of renal impairment and restoration of kidney function. Materials and Methods: We have screened 60 cases, of whom 54 were assigned to either tolvaptan group (36) or placebo (18). Overall 36 cases completed the trial (24 from tolvaptan group and 12 cases from placebo group). Estimated GFR (glomerular filtration rate) calculated and stages were noted. TKV and total cyst volume measured by ultrasonography at days 0, 30, 90, and 180 along with other vitals. The total number of patients enrolled was randomly divided into two broad groups by concealed envelop technique: Intervention group (with tolvaptan) and placebo or control group. The intervention group was given tolvaptan along with standard conventional management for ADPKD as per relevant stages. The placebo group was given placebo tablets with same size and color (multivitamin tablet) along with standard conventional management for ADPKD as per relevant stages. The periodic estimation of cyst volume, kidney volume, serum creatinine level, and estimated glomerular filtration rate recorded and analyzed with ANOVA method with confidence interval 95%. Results: Analysis of the data showed fewer ADPKD-related events per cases of follow-up with tolvaptan than with placebo. These results were confirmed by the analysis of the 1st time and after 6 months of study. Our data suggest that increase of TKV and total cyst volume was less in tolvaptan group as compared to placebo group. Overall, treatment effect on the growth of TKV was 0.219% per month with a P<0.0001. Conclusions: The administration of tolvaptan for 6 months was associated with slowed kidney growth and functional decline and with a reduced frequency of ADPKD-related complications among patients with a relatively preserved GFR

    Parametric optimalization of submerged fermantation conditions for xylanase production Bacillus cereus BSA1 through Taguchi Methodology

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    Extracellular xylanase production of Bacillus cereus BSA1 was optimized under submerged fermentation using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA). An L18 layout of OA was constructed at three-levels of six factors, i.e. temperature, pH, and xylan, Na2HPO4, NH4NO3 and NaCl concentrations, influencing the xylanase synthesis. The enzyme production was studied in 18 parallel batch systems using different levels of each factor. The results were processed with Qualitek-4 software using ‘bigger is better’ quality character, and combination of 35 oC; pH 6.0; and xylan 0.5; NH4NO3 0.5, Na2HPO4, 0.1; NaCl 0.05 concentrations (in w/v %) with a predictive xylanase production of 7.404 U/ml was obtained. Fermentation experiment was performed for further validating the statistical output, and it resulted 10.24% in the xylanase yield (from 6.44 U/ml to 7.10 U/ml) as compared to one variable at a time (OVAT) design. Interaction effects of the factors individually and in combination can be evaluated by using Taguchi method design of experiment