11 research outputs found

    Gas mass tracers in protoplanetary disks: CO is still the best

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    Protoplanetary disk mass is a key parameter controlling the process of planetary system formation. CO molecular emission is often used as a tracer of gas mass in the disk. In this study we consider the ability of CO to trace the gas mass over a wide range of disk structural parameters and search for chemical species that could possibly be used as alternative mass tracers to CO. Specifically, we apply detailed astrochemical modeling to a large set of models of protoplanetary disks around low-mass stars, to select molecules with abundances correlated with the disk mass and being relatively insensitive to other disk properties. We do not consider sophisticated dust evolution models, restricting ourselves with the standard astrochemical assumption of 0.1 μ0.1~\mu m dust. We find that CO is indeed the best molecular tracer for total gas mass, despite the fact that it is not the main carbon carrier, provided reasonable assumptions about CO abundance in the disk are used. Typically, chemical reprocessing lowers the abundance of CO by a factor of 3, compared to the case of photo-dissociation and freeze-out as the only ways of CO depletion. On average only 13% C-atoms reside in gas-phase CO, albeit with variations from 2 to 30%. CO2_2, H2_2O and H2_2CO can potentially serve as alternative mass tracers, the latter two being only applicable if disk structural parameters are known.Comment: Accepted for publication in Ap

    Observational Chemical Signatures of the Past FU Ori Outbursts

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    FU Ori-type stars are young stellar objects (YSOs) experiencing luminosity outbursts by a few orders of magnitude, which last for \sim10210^2 years. A dozen of FUors are known up to date, but many more currently quiescent YSOs could have experienced such outbursts in the last \sim10310^3 years. To find observational signatures of possible past outbursts, we utilise ANDES, RADMC-3D code as well as CASA ALMA simulator to model the impact of the outburst on the physical and chemical structure of typical FU Ori systems and how it translates to the molecular lines' fluxes. We identify several combinations of molecular lines that may trace past FU Ori objects both with and without envelopes. The most promising outburst tracers from an observational perspective are the molecular flux combinations of the N2_{2}H+^{+} J=32J=3-2, C18^{18}O J=21J = 2-1, H2_2CO (JKa,Kc)=404303(J_{\rm K_a, K_c}) = 4_{04}-3_{03}, and HCN J=32J = 3-2 lines. We analyse the processes leading to molecular flux changes and show that they are linked with either thermal desorption or enhanced chemical reactions in the molecular layer. Using observed CO, HCN, N2_2H+^+ and H2_2CO line fluxes from the literature, we identify ten nearby disc systems that might have undergone FU Ori outbursts in the past \sim10310^3 years: [MGM2012] 556, [MGM2012] 371 and [MGM2012] 907 YSOs in L1641, Class II protoplanetary discs around CI Tau, AS 209 and IM Lup and transitional discs DM Tau, GM Aur, LkCa 15 and J1640-2130.Comment: Accepted to MNRA

    Evolution of dust in protoplanetary disks of eruptive stars

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    Aims. Luminosity bursts in young FU Orionis-type stars warm up the surrounding disks of gas and dust, thus inflicting changes on their morphological and chemical composition. In this work, we aim at studying the effects that such bursts may have on the spatial distribution of dust grain sizes and the corresponding spectral index in protoplanetary disks. Methods. We use the numerical hydrodynamics code FEOSAD, which simulates the co-evolution of gas, dust, and volatiles in a protoplanetary disk, taking dust growth and back reaction on gas into account. The dependence of the maximum dust size on the water ice mantles is explicitly considered. The burst is initialized by increasing the luminosity of the central star to 100-300 L-circle dot for a time period of 100 yr. Results. The water snowline shifts during the burst to a larger distance, resulting in the drop of the maximum dust size interior to the snowline position because of more efficient fragmentation of bare grains. After the burst, the water snowline shifts quickly back to its preburst location followed by renewed dust growth. The timescale of dust regrowth after the burst depends on the radial distance so that the dust grains at smaller distances reach the preburst values faster than the dust grains at larger distances. As a result, a broad peak in the radial distribution of the spectral index in the millimeter dust emission develops at approximate to 10 au, which shifts further out as the disk evolves and dust grains regrow to preburst values at progressively larger distances. This feature is most pronounced in evolved axisymmetric disks rather than in young gravitationally unstable counterparts, although young disks may still be good candidates if gravitational instability is suppressed. We confirmed our earlier conclusion that spiral arms do not act as strong dust accumulators because of the Stokes number dropping below 0.01 within the arms, but this trend may change in low-turbulence disks. Conclusions. We argue that, depending on the burst strength and disk conditions, a broad peak in the radial distribution of the spectral index can last for up to several thousand years after the burst has ended and can be used to infer past bursts in otherwise quiescent protostars. The detection of a similar peak in the disk around V883 Ori, an FU Orionis-type star with an unknown eruption date, suggests that such features may be common in the post-outburst objects

    Chemical Signatures of the FU Ori Outbursts

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    The FU Ori─type young stellar objects are characterized by a sudden increase in luminosity by 1─2 orders of magnitude followed by a slow return to the pre-outburst state on timescales of ∼10─100 yr. The outburst strongly affects the entire disk, changing its thermal structure and radiation field. In this paper, using a detailed physical- chemical model, we study the impact of the FU Ori outburst on the disk chemical inventory. Our main goal is to identify gas-phase molecular tracers of the outburst activity that could be observed after the outburst with modern telescopes such as ALMA and NOEMA. We find that the majority of molecules experience a considerable increase in total disk gas-phase abundances due to the outburst, mainly due to the sublimation of their ices. Their return to the pre-outburst chemical state takes different amounts of time, from nearly instantaneous to very long. Among the former, we identify CO, NH3, C2H6, C3H4, etc. Their abundance evolution tightly follows the luminosity curve. For CO, the abundance increase does not exceed an order of magnitude, while for other tracers, the abundances increase by 2─5 orders of magnitude. Other molecules, like H2CO and NH2OH, have longer retention timescales, remaining in the gas phase for ∼10─103 yr after the end of the outburst. Thus, H2CO could be used as an indicator of the previous outbursts in the post-outburst FU Ori systems. We investigate the corresponding time-dependent chemistry in detail and present the most favorable transitions and ALMA configurations for future observations

    Evolution of dust in protoplanetary disks of eruptive stars

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    Aims. Luminosity bursts in young FU Orionis-type stars warm up the surrounding disks of gas and dust, thus inflicting changes on their morphological and chemical composition. In this work, we aim at studying the effects that such bursts may have on the spatial distribution of dust grain sizes and the corresponding spectral index in protoplanetary disks. Methods. We use the numerical hydrodynamics code FEOSAD, which simulates the co-evolution of gas, dust, and volatiles in a protoplanetary disk, taking dust growth and back reaction on gas into account. The dependence of the maximum dust size on the water ice mantles is explicitly considered. The burst is initialized by increasing the luminosity of the central star to 100–300 L⊙ for a time period of 100 yr. Results. The water snowline shifts during the burst to a larger distance, resulting in the drop of the maximum dust size interior to the snowline position because of more efficient fragmentation of bare grains. After the burst, the water snowline shifts quickly back to its preburst location followed by renewed dust growth. The timescale of dust regrowth after the burst depends on the radial distance so that the dust grains at smaller distances reach the preburst values faster than the dust grains at larger distances. As a result, a broad peak in the radial distribution of the spectral index in the millimeter dust emission develops at ≈10 au, which shifts further out as the disk evolves and dust grains regrow to preburst values at progressively larger distances. This feature is most pronounced in evolved axisymmetric disks rather than in young gravitationally unstable counterparts, although young disks may still be good candidates if gravitational instability is suppressed. We confirmed our earlier conclusion that spiral arms do not act as strong dust accumulators because of the Stokes number dropping below 0.01 within the arms, but this trend may change in low-turbulence disks. Conclusions. We argue that, depending on the burst strength and disk conditions, a broad peak in the radial distribution of the spectral index can last for up to several thousand years after the burst has ended and can be used to infer past bursts in otherwise quiescent protostars. The detection of a similar peak in the disk around V883 Ori, an FU Orionis-type star with an unknown eruption date, suggests that such features may be common in the post-outburst objects

    Machine learning-accelerated chemistry modeling of protoplanetary disks

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    Aims. With the large amount of molecular emission data from (sub)millimeter observatories and incoming James Webb Space Telescope infrared spectroscopy, access to fast forward models of the chemical composition of protoplanetary disks is of paramount importance. Methods. We used a thermo-chemical modeling code to generate a diverse population of protoplanetary disk models. We trained a K-nearest neighbors (KNN) regressor to instantly predict the chemistry of other disk models. Results. We show that it is possible to accurately reproduce chemistry using just a small subset of physical conditions, thanks to correlations between the local physical conditions in adopted protoplanetary disk models. We discuss the uncertainties and limitations of this method. Conclusions. The proposed method can be used for Bayesian fitting of the line emission data to retrieve disk properties from observations. We present a pipeline for reproducing the same approach on other disk chemical model sets

    Interpreting the Atmospheric Composition of Exoplanets: Sensitivity to Planet Formation Assumptions

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    Constraining planet formation based on the atmospheric composition of exoplanets is a fundamental goal of the exoplanet community. Existing studies commonly try to constrain atmospheric abundances, or to analyze what abundance patterns a given description of planet formation predicts. However, there is also a pressing need to develop methodologies that investigate how to transform atmospheric compositions into planetary formation inferences. In this study we summarize the complexities and uncertainties of state-of-the-art planet formation models and how they influence planetary atmospheric compositions. We introduce a methodology that explores the effect of different formation model assumptions when interpreting atmospheric compositions. We apply this framework to the directly imaged planet HR 8799e. Based on its atmospheric composition, this planet may have migrated significantly during its formation. We show that including the chemical evolution of the protoplanetary disk leads to a reduced need for migration. Moreover, we find that pebble accretion can reproduce the planet's composition, but some of our tested setups lead to too low atmospheric metallicities, even when considering that evaporating pebbles may enrich the disk gas. We conclude that the definitive inversion from atmospheric abundances to planet formation for a given planet may be challenging, but a qualitative understanding of the effects of different formation models is possible, opening up pathways for new investigations
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