405 research outputs found

    Recreation reduces tick density through fine-scale risk effects on deer space-use

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    Altered interactions between pathogens, their hosts and vectors have potential consequences for human disease risk. Notably, tick-borne pathogens, many of which are associated with growing deer abundance, show global increasing prevalence and pose increasing challenges for disease prevention. Human activities can largely affect the patterns of deer space-use and can therefore be potential management tools to alleviate human-wildlife conflicts. Here, we tested how deer space-use patterns are influenced by human recreational activities, and how this in turn affects the spatial distribution of the sheep tick (Ixodes ricinus), a relevant disease vector of zoonoses such as Lyme borrelioses. We compared deer dropping and questing tick density on transects near (20 m) and further away from (100 m) forest trails that were either frequently used (open for recreation) or infrequently used (closed for recreation, but used by park managers). In contrast to infrequently used trails, deer dropping density was 31% lower near (20 m) than further away from (100 m) frequently used trails. Similarly, ticks were 62% less abundant near (20 m) frequently used trails compared to further away from (100 m) these trails, while this decline in tick numbers was only 14% near infrequently used trails. The avoidance by deer of areas close to human-used trails was thus associated with a similar reduction in questing tick density near these trails. As tick abundance generally correlates to pathogen prevalence, the use of trails for recreation may reduce tick-borne disease risk for humans on and near these trails. Our study reveals an unexplored effect of human activities on ecosystems and how this knowledge could be potentially used to mitigate zoonotic disease risk

    Recreation reduces tick density through fine-scale risk effects on deer space-use

    Get PDF
    Altered interactions between pathogens, their hosts and vectors have potential consequences for human disease risk. Notably, tick-borne pathogens, many of which are associated with growing deer abundance, show global increasing prevalence and pose increasing challenges for disease prevention. Human activities can largely affect the patterns of deer space-use and can therefore be potential management tools to alleviate human-wildlife conflicts. Here, we tested how deer space-use patterns are influenced by human recreational activities, and how this in turn affects the spatial distribution of the sheep tick (Ixodes ricinus), a relevant disease vector of zoonoses such as Lyme borrelioses. We compared deer dropping and questing tick density on transects near (20 m) and further away from(100 m) forest trails that were either frequently used (open for recreation) or infrequently used (closed for recreation, but used by park managers). In contrast to infrequently used trails, deer dropping density was 31% lower near (20 m) than further away from (100 m) frequently used trails. Similarly, ticks were 62% less abundant near (20 m) frequently used trails compared to further away from (100 m) these trails, while this decline in tick numbers was only 14% near infrequently used trails. The avoidance by deer of areas close to human-used trails was thus associated with a similar reduction in questing tick density near these trails. As tick abundance generally correlates to pathogen prevalence, the use of trails for recreation may reduce tick-borne disease risk for humans on and near these trails. Our study reveals an unexplored effect of human activities on ecosystems and how this knowledge could be potentially used to mitigate zoonotic disease risk

    Recreation and hunting differentially affect deer behaviour and sapling performance

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    Humans are increasingly acknowledged as apex predators that shape landscapes of fear to which herbivores adapt their behaviour. Here, we investigate how humans modify deer space-use and their effects on vegetation at two spatial scales; zones with different types of human use (largescale risk factor) and, nested within that, trails (fine-scale risk factor). In zones with three contrasting types of human activities: 1) no recreation, no hunting, 2) with recreation, no hunting and 3) with recreation and hunting, we linked deer space-use (dropping counts) to browsing intensity, relative growth and survival of planted saplings. Plots were located at two distances to trails (20 versus 100 m) to test how trails affect deer space-use and sapling performance. Additionally, plots were distributed over forest and heathland as risk effects are habitat-dependent. Deer space-use was highest in the zone without recreation or hunting, resulting in higher browsing levels and lower sapling growth and survival, but only in heathland. In contrast, deer space-use and sapling performance did not differ between zones with recreation only and zones with recreation and hunting. Deer dropping counts were lower near trails used for recreation, but this was not associated with browsing impact or sapling performance. Our results show that recreational use modifies deer space-use which is associated with browsing impact on woody vegetation, while seasonal hunting activities in zones with recreation did not have additive year-round effects. Yet, effects were only observed at the larger scale of recreation zones and not near trails. Furthermore, deer space-use was only associated with sapling performance in open heathland, where high visibility presumably increases avoidance behaviour because it increases detectability and decreases escape possibilities. This suggests that recreation creates behaviourally mediated cascading effects that influence vegetation development, yet these effects are context-dependent. We advocate incorporating human-induced fear effects in conservation, management and research

    The discrimination capabilities of Micromegas detectors at low energy

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    The latest generation of Micromegas detectors show a good energy resolution, spatial resolution and low threshold, which make them idoneous in low energy applications. Two micromegas detectors have been built for dark matter experiments: CAST, which uses a dipole magnet to convert axion into detectable x-ray photons, and MIMAC, which aims to reconstruct the tracks of low energy nuclear recoils in a mixture of CF4 and CHF3. These readouts have been respectively built with the microbulk and bulk techniques, which show different gain, electron transmission and energy resolutions. The detectors and the operation conditions will be described in detail as well as their discrimination capabilities for low energy photons will be discussed.Comment: To be published in the proceedings of the TIPP2011 conference (Physics Procedia

    MIMAC : A micro-tpc matrix for directional detection of dark matter

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    Directional detection of non-baryonic Dark Matter is a promising search strategy for discriminating WIMP events from background. However, this strategy requires both a precise measurement of the energy down to a few keV and 3D reconstruction of tracks down to a few mm. To achieve this goal, the MIMAC project has been developed. It is based on a gaseous micro-TPC matrix, filled with CF4 and CHF3. The first results on low energy nuclear recoils (H, F) obtained with a low mono-energetic neutron field are presented. The discovery potential of this search strategy is discussed and illustrated by a realistic case accessible to MIMAC.Comment: 6 pages, Proc. of the fifth international symposium on large TPCs for low energy rare event detection, Paris, France, Dec. 2010. To appear in Journal of Physic

    K–Te photocathodes: A new electron source for photoinjectors

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    K–Te photocathodes deposited on a Mo substrate have been successfully used as an electron source in the free electron laser of University of Twente. Long lifetimes have been measured: after more than 20 h of operation in the accelerator a K–Te cathode with 4.75% initial quantum efficiency still displays a 1.1% quantum efficiency at 259 nm. Moreover, the quantum efficiency of this cathode versus operation time can be fitted by an exponential decay curve, which saturates asymptotically to a 1.03% value, suggesting that a quantum efficiency close to 1% could be sustained for very long operation times. Films degraded by use can be recovered to a quantum efficiency which is close to the initial value, by heating the substrate at temperatures between 100 and 330 °C. A new procedure to obtain K–Te cathodes with high (up to 11%) quantum efficiencies is described

    The Language of Inequality: Evidence Economic Inequality Increases Wealth Category Salience

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    This is the final version. Available on open access from SAGE Publications via the DOI in this recordThere is evidence that in more economically unequal societies social relations are more strained. We argue that this may reflect the tendency for wealth to become a more fitting lens for seeing the world, so that in economically more unequal circumstances people more readily divide the world into “the haves” and “have nots”. Our argument is supported by archival and experimental evidence. Two archival analyses reveal that at times of greater inequality, books in the UK and the US and news media in English-speaking countries were more likely to mention the rich and poor. Three experiments, two pre-registered, provided evidence for the causal role of economic inequality in people’s use of wealth categories when describing life in a fictional society; effects were weaker when examining real economic contexts. Thus, one way in which inequality changes the world may be by changing how we see it
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