148 research outputs found

### Annual Research Briefs, 1987

Lagrangian techniques have found widespread application to the prediction and understanding of turbulent transport phenomena and have yielded satisfactory results for different cases of shear flow problems. However, it must be kept in mind that in most experiments what is really available are Eulerian statistics, and it is far from obvious how to extract from them the information relevant to the Lagrangian behavior of the flow; in consequence, Lagrangian models still include some hypothesis for which no adequate supporting evidence was until now available. Direct numerical simulation of turbulence offers a new way to obtain Lagrangian statistics and so verify the validity of the current predictive models and the accuracy of their results. After the pioneering work of Riley (Riley and Patterson, 1974) in the 70's, some such results have just appeared in the literature (Lee et al, Yeung and Pope). The present contribution follows in part similar lines, but focuses on two particle statistics and comparison with existing models

### Contributions of numerical simulation data bases to the physics, modeling and measurement of turbulence

The use of simulation data bases for the examination of turbulent flows is an effective research tool. Studies of the structure of turbulence have been hampered by the limited number of probes and the impossibility of measuring all desired quantities. Also, flow visualization is confined to the observation of passive markers with limited field of view and contamination caused by time-history effects. Computer flow fields are a new resource for turbulence research, providing all the instantaneous flow variables in three-dimensional space. Simulation data bases also provide much-needed information for phenomenological turbulence modeling. Three dimensional velocity and pressure fields from direct simulations can be used to compute all the terms in the transport equations for the Reynolds stresses and the dissipation rate. However, only a few, geometrically simple flows have been computed by direct numerical simulation, and the inventory of simulation does not fully address the current modeling needs in complex turbulent flows. The availability of three-dimensional flow fields also poses challenges in developing new techniques for their analysis, techniques based on experimental methods, some of which are used here for the analysis of direct-simulation data bases in studies of the mechanics of turbulent flows

### Characteristic eddy decomposition of turbulence in a channel

The proper orthogonal decomposition technique (Lumley's decomposition) is applied to the turbulent flow in a channel to extract coherent structures by decomposing the velocity field into characteristic eddies with random coefficients. In the homogeneous spatial directions, a generaliztion of the shot-noise expansion is used to determine the characteristic eddies. In this expansion, the Fourier coefficients of the characteristic eddy cannot be obtained from the second-order statistics. Three different techniques are used to determine the phases of these coefficients. They are based on: (1) the bispectrum, (2) a spatial compactness requirement, and (3) a functional continuity argument. Results from these three techniques are found to be similar in most respects. The implications of these techniques and the shot-noise expansion are discussed. The dominant eddy is found to contribute as much as 76 percent to the turbulent kinetic energy. In both 2D and 3D, the characteristic eddies consist of an ejection region straddled by streamwise vortices that leave the wall in the very short streamwise distance of about 100 wall units

### Direct numerical simulation of turbulent flow over a backward-facing step

The objectives of this study are as follows: (1) to conduct a direct numerical simulation of turbulent backward facing step flow using inflow and outflow conditions; and (2) to provide data in the form of Reynolds stress budgets for Reynolds averaged modeling. The report presents the basic statistical data and comparisons with the concurrent experiments of Jovic and Driver and budgets of turbulent kinetic energy

### Reynolds number dependence of length scales governing turbulent flow separation with application to wall-modeled large-eddy simulations

This article proposes a Reynolds number scaling of the required grid points
to perform wall-modeled LES of turbulent flows encountering separation off a
solid surface. Based on comparisons between the various time scales in a
non-equilibrium (due to the action of an external pressure gradient) turbulent
boundary layer, a simple definition of the near-wall ``under-equilibrium" and
``out-of-equilibrium" scales is put forward (where ``under-equilibrium" refers
to scales governed by a quasi-balance between the viscous and the pressure
gradient terms). It is shown that the former length scale varies with Reynolds
number as lp Re^(-2/3). The same scaling is obtained from a simplified Green's
function solution of the Poisson equation in the vicinity of the separation
point. A-priori analysis demonstrates that the resolution required to
reasonably predict the wall-shear stress (for example, errors lower than
approximately 10-15% in the entire domain) in several nonequilibrium flows is
at least O(10) lp irrespective of the Reynolds number and the Clauser
parameter. Further, a series of a-posteriori validation studies are performed
to determine the accuracy of this scaling including the flow over the Boeing
speed bump, Song-Eaton diffuser, Notre-Dame Ramp, and the backward-facing step.
The results suggest that for these flows, scaling the computational grids ()
such that / lp is independent of the Reynolds number results in accurate
predictions of flow separation at the same ``nominal" grid resolution across
different Reynolds numbers. Finally, it is suggested that in the vicinity of
the separation and reattachment points, the grid-point requirements for
wall-modeled large eddy simulations may scale as Re^4/3, which is more
restrictive than the previously proposed flat-plate boundary layer-based
estimates (Re1) of Choi and Moin (Phys. Fluids, 2012) and Yang and Griffin
(Phys. Fluids, 2021).Comment: 21 pages, 17 figures. Submitted to AIAA Journal for publication
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### The free compressible viscous vortex

The effects of compressibility on free (unsteady) viscous heat-conducting vortices are investigated. Analytical solutions are found in the limit of large, but finite, Reynolds number, and small, but finite, Mach number. The analysis shows that the spreading of the vortex causes a radial flow. This flow is given by the solution of an ordinary differential equation (valid for any Mach number), which gives the dependence of the radial velocity on the tangential velocity, density, and temperature profiles of the vortex; estimates of the radial velocity found by solving this equation are found to be in good agreement with numerical solutions of the full equations. The experiments of Mandella (1987) also report a radial flow in the vortex, but their estimates are much larger than the analytical predictions, and it is found that the flow inferred from the experiments violates the Second Law of Thermodynamics for two-dimensional axisymmetric flow. It is speculated that three-dimensionality is the cause of this discrepancy. To obtain detailed analytical solutions, the equations for the viscous evolution are expanded in powers of Mach number, M. Solutions valid to O(M^2), are discussed for vortices with finite circulation. Two specific initial conditions - vortices with initially uniform entropy and with initially uniform density - are analysed in detail. It is shown that swirling axisymmetric compressible flows generate negative radial velocities far from the vortex core owing to viscous effects, regardless of the initial distributions of vorticity, density and entropy

### Scattering of Sound Waves by a Compressible Vortex

Scattering of plane sound waves by a compressible vortex is investigated by direct computation of the 2-d Navier-Stokes equations. Non-reflecting boundary conditions are utilized, and their accuracy is established by comparing results on different sized domains. Scattered waves are directly measured from the computations. The resulting amplitude and directivity pattern of the scattered waves is discussed, and compared to various theoretical predictions. For compact vortices (zero circulation), the scattered waves directly computed are in good agreement with predictions based on an acoustic analogy. Strong scattering at about ±30° from the direction of incident wave propagation is observed. Back scattering is an order of magnitude smaller than forward scattering. For vortices with finite circulation refraction of the sound by the mean flow field outside the vortex core is found to be important in determining the amplitude and directivity of the scattered wave field

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