5 research outputs found

    Oxidation Stability of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester under Three Different Conditions

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    Maintaining fuel stability is one important criterion in sustaining the quality of fuels. This research investigated the production of biodiesel from waste groundnut oil and the oxidation stability of the biodiesel samples stored under three conditions (a vacuum, a fridge and an exposure to atmosphere) by considering their saponification values, percentage of free fatty acid, peroxide values, iodine values and viscosity. Maximum biodiesel yield was obtained at 9 methanol/oil mole ratio, 1.0w/w%Oil KOH catalyst concentration, reaction time of 60 minutes and reaction temperature of 60 0C. The results showed that biodiesel oxidation stability is adversely affected by increase in saponification value, percentage of free fatty acid, peroxide value; and decrease in iodine value and viscosity. Also, the results of these physico-chemical properties shows that vacuum is the most favourable storage condition, compared to freezing and atmospheric conditions. Keywords: Atmosphere, Biodiesel, Refrigerator, Trans-esterification, Vacuu

    Data on CaO and eggshell catalysts used for biodiesel production

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    This research investigated the production of biodiesel from soybean oil (transesterification process) using pure calcium oxide and calcium oxide obtained from eggshell as heterogeneous catalysts. Uncalcined eggshell and calcined eggshell catalysts produced were analysed using XRF and XRD spectrometers. The processing parameters considered during the transesterification of the soybean were methanol/oil mole ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time and their effects on biodiesel yield were evaluated. Reaction temperature of 60 °C and stirring rate of 450 rpm (revolution per minute) were kept constant. As a result of calcination, XRF analysis revealed an increase in CaO percentage composition of eggshell catalyst from 96% to 97%. Also, the biodiesel yields obtained revealed similar performance patterns for both the calcined eggshell catalyst and the pure CaO catalyst. Keywords: Biodiesel, Calcined eggshell, Catalys

    Enhancing rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) seed shell biochar through acid-base modification for effective phenol removal from aqueous environments

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    This work encompasses using acid-base modified rubber seed shell biochar (RSSB) as an adsorption approach to eradicate phenol from aqueous mediums. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) was used pre-pyrolysis to modify the RSS, and hydrochloric acid (HCl) was used post-pyrolysis to modify the RSSB. The methodology was divided into three stages: RSS pretreatment, RSS base-modification and pyrolysis, and RSSB acid-modification and processing. Temperature, pH and several other factors were investigated for their impacts on the adsorbent, and optimal conditions were established at pH 6, 1.0 g of rubber seed shell biochar (RSSB), 50 mg/L initial concentration, 120 min contact time, and 30 °C temperature. The highest phenol removal efficiency was recorded at 97.21 % using the RSSB-700 adsorbent. Thermodynamic, kinetic and isotherm studies were carried out on the adsorbents using the non-linear modelling approach. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model was declared optimal because the adsorption rate closely followed it, with minimal difference between the experimental and computed values. The maximum RSSB adsorption capacity is 13.32 mg/g, according to the equilibrium results, which follow the Langmuir isotherm equation. Thus, the aim of this research and all documented objectives have been fulfilled

    Bioconversion of Waste Foolscap and Newspaper to Fermentable Sugar

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    The aim of this project work was to evaluate the effect of bacteria – Serratia in the enzymatic hydrolysis of Foolscap [FS] and Newspaper [NP] into fermentable or reducing sugars. The effect of temperature and hydrolysis time (number of days) on the extent of concentration of reducing sugar yield were assessed and quantified using Dinitrosalicylic acid test method (DNS). A proximate analysis was carried out on the substrate before hydrolysis. Alkaline pre-treatment using sodium hydroxide and deinking process for the removal of paper with ink for higher susceptibility of the substrate before the enzymatic hydrolysis were carried out. The temperature effect on the waste sample were analysed at 37°C, 40°C and 45°C for 7 days, it was observed that at 37°C, saccharification was higher than at 40°C and 45°C. The general observation was in that Serratia had a very good effect on the waste paper samples. A 3-D surface plot revealed that the yield of sugar increased along with the hydrolysis time (number of days), with Foolscap having the highest yield of about 21mg/ml. The comparative analysis shows that the highest yield was obtained at the temperature of 37°C, for both substrates used

    Comparative analyses of functional, pasting and morphological characteristics of native and modified tigernut starches with their blends

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    The effect of some physical and chemical treatments on the functional and pasting characteristics of native tigernut starch (TNNS), native sweet potato starch (SPNS) and blends of tigernut-sweet potato starch were studied. Native tigernut and sweet potato starches were subjected to physical (annealing and heat-moisture) and chemical (acetylation) modifications and compared to tigernut (T)-sweet potato (S) starches blends (T75:S25, T50:S50, T25:S75). Only heat-moisture treatment (THMT) significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased water absorption capacity of the TNNS while only acetylation significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased the oil absorption capacity of the native tigernut starch. The bulk density was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced by annealing and acetylation. In addition, TNAS, mixture of blends and SPNS had higher swelling capacity than TNNS. The final and peak viscosities of TNNS, SPNS and all the starch blends were between (217–280 RVU) and (214–395.3 RVU) respectively with SPNS having the highest values, followed by T75:S25 (75% tigernut starch: 25% sweet potato starch) and TNNS in that order. TNNS also had the highest setback viscosity. Samples THMT, TANN and TNAS significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced the breakdown viscosity and the pasting temperature. The scanning electron micrograph showed that the native and modified starches of tigernut were similar to those of other starches. Overall, the results showed that many of the pasting characteristics of TNNS were comparable to SPNS, while SPNS had with better functional characteristics