21 research outputs found

    Potential feedback of recent vegetation changes on summer rainfall in the Sahel

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    <p>The Sahel region of Northern Africa is home to more than 50 million people for whom summer rainfall is a crucial water resource in terms of food security and societal stability. Using satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and gridded observational precipitation records during 1982ÔÇô2012, we detected a significant increase (<i>p</i>-value┬á<┬á0.01) in both vegetation greenness and monsoon rainfall over the Sahel since the early 1980s. A significant positive association between NDVI and precipitation was observed for most of the Sahel during the boreal summer. In further efforts to examine the potential causal association behind the positive correlation, we found that summer vegetation greenness Granger-causes summer rainfall in the Sahel. Regarding the physical process behind this identified Granger causality, we inferred that significantly increasing latent heat flux and specific humidity resulted in increasing summer rainfall during the years of high NDVI in the Sahel. A significant increase in the percentage of land used for crops and pastures was a potential cause of the recent vegetation change. Our findings indicated that the positive effect of vegetation cover through agricultural activities on regional precipitation could lead to a positive feedback between the vegetation and climate in the water-limited Sahel region.</p

    DataSheet_1_Evaluating the impacts of mesoscale eddies on abundance and distribution of neon flying squid in the Northwest Pacific Ocean.docx

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    Mesoscale eddies are ubiquitous in global oceans yielding significant impacts on marine life. As a short-lived pelagic squid species, the population of neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) is extremely sensitive to changes in ambient oceanic variables. However, a comprehensive understanding of how mesoscale eddies affect the O. bartramii population in the Northwest Pacific Ocean is still lacking. In this study, a 10-year squid fisheries dataset with eddy tracking and high-resolution reanalysis ocean reanalysis data was used to evaluate the impact of mesoscale eddies and their induced changes in environmental conditions on the abundance and habitat distribution of O. bartramii in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. A weighted-based habitat suitability index (HSI) model was developed with three crucial environmental factors: sea surface temperature (SST), seawater temperature at 50-m depth (T50m), and chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a). During years with an unstable Kuroshio Extension (KE) state, the abundance of O. bartramii was significantly higher in anticyclonic eddies (AEs) than that in cyclonic eddies (CEs). This difference was well explained by the distribution pattern of suitable habitats in eddies derived from the HSI model. Enlarged ranges of the preferred SST, T50m, and Chl-a for O. bartramii within AEs were the main causes of more squids occurring inside the warm-core eddies, whereas highly productive CEs matching with unfavorable thermal conditions tended to form unsuitable habitats for O. bartramii. Our findings suggest that with an unstable KE background, suitable thermal conditions combined with favorable foraging conditions within AEs were the main drivers that yielded the high abundance of O. bartramii in the warm eddies.</p

    COS-1 cells were separated into nuclear and nonnuclear fractions as described in Materials and methods

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    Equal cell equivalents of each fraction were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblots (inset) for the indicated proteins. Immunoprecipitated proteins were detected and quantified with [I]protein A and phosphorimaging, and the percentage of total protein in the nuclear fraction was calculated (mean ┬▒ SEM; = 3).<p><b>Copyright information:</b></p><p>Taken from "Rac1 accumulates in the nucleus during the G2 phase of the cell cycle and promotes cell division"</p><p></p><p>The Journal of Cell Biology 2008;181(3):485-496.</p><p>Published online 5 May 2008</p><p>PMCID:PMC2364699.</p><p></p

    (A) PAE cells stably expressing GFP-Rac1 at levels below endogenous were synchronized in G1/S by serum starvation followed by hydroxyurea and then released

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    The percentage of cells with nuclear Rac1 was determined hourly and plotted as mean ┬▒ SEM ( = 4). (B) Aliquots of the cells analyzed in A were scraped from plates at the indicated times and analyzed for stage of the cell cycle by propidium iodide and cytofluorimetry. (C) Unsynchronized COS-1 cells were transfected with GFP-Rac1 and, after 16 h, fixed and stained for cyclin A. Although the cell expressing GFP-Rac1 in the nucleus (arrows) stained for cyclin A, a marker of G2/M, those excluding the protein from the nucleus (arrowheads) did not. This correlation held for 93% of transfected cells examined (>100). Bars, 10 ╬╝m.<p><b>Copyright information:</b></p><p>Taken from "Rac1 accumulates in the nucleus during the G2 phase of the cell cycle and promotes cell division"</p><p></p><p>The Journal of Cell Biology 2008;181(3):485-496.</p><p>Published online 5 May 2008</p><p>PMCID:PMC2364699.</p><p></p

    (A) Nuclear and nonnuclear fractions were prepared as described in Materials and methods

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    After separation, each fraction was brought to 1% Triton X-114 and phase separation was initiated by heating the samples to 37┬░C. The aqueous and detergent phases of each fraction were analyzed for Rac1, RhoGDI, and lamin B by immunoblotting. Immunoblots were quantified with [I]protein A and phosphorimaging, and the percentage of total protein in each fraction in the detergent phase was calculated (mean ┬▒ SEM; = 3). (B) Triton X-114 partition as shown in A was performed on the nuclear fractions of COS-1 cells treated overnight with or without 10 ╬╝M simvistatin. Aq, aqueous; Det, detergent phases. (C) Selected images of GFP-Rac1 in COS-1 and ECV cells showing prominent decoration of the nuclear envelope (arrowhead). Bars, 10 ╬╝m.<p><b>Copyright information:</b></p><p>Taken from "Rac1 accumulates in the nucleus during the G2 phase of the cell cycle and promotes cell division"</p><p></p><p>The Journal of Cell Biology 2008;181(3):485-496.</p><p>Published online 5 May 2008</p><p>PMCID:PMC2364699.</p><p></p

    PAE (A) or NIH 3T3 (B) cells stably expressing GFP-Rac1 at levels below endogenous were examined by time-lapse confocal microscopy over one division cycle

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    Arrowheads indicate representative parent and daughter cells. Note that nuclear Rac1 is high immediately preceding mitosis and that GFP-Rac1 is excluded from the nuclei of the daughter cells immediately after cell division. See Videos 1 and 2 (available at ). Bars, 10 ╬╝m.<p><b>Copyright information:</b></p><p>Taken from "Rac1 accumulates in the nucleus during the G2 phase of the cell cycle and promotes cell division"</p><p></p><p>The Journal of Cell Biology 2008;181(3):485-496.</p><p>Published online 5 May 2008</p><p>PMCID:PMC2364699.</p><p></p

    (A) PAE cells stably expressing GFP-Rac1 at levels below endogenous Rac1 (Fig

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    S1, available at ) were scored for the percentage of cells showing strong nuclear fluorescence before and 16 h after the addition of increasing amounts of the indicated compounds. Representative cells at the indicated dose are shown with the percentage of cells showing each phenotype indicated (left), and cumulative dose-response data are shown on the right (mean ┬▒ SEM; = 3). Bars, 10 ╬╝m. (B) Endogenous Rac1, Ras, and RCC1 were measured in the nuclear fractions as described in before and after the addition of 50 ╬╝M apigenin for 24 h (mean ┬▒ SEM; = 4).<p><b>Copyright information:</b></p><p>Taken from "Rac1 accumulates in the nucleus during the G2 phase of the cell cycle and promotes cell division"</p><p></p><p>The Journal of Cell Biology 2008;181(3):485-496.</p><p>Published online 5 May 2008</p><p>PMCID:PMC2364699.</p><p></p

    (A) Confocal images of asynchronous T98G cells expressing GFP-Rac1 with the percent of the transfected population represented by each pattern indicated

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    T98G (B) or IMR-90 (C) cells were synchronized by serum deprivation for 72 h and then induced to cycle by refeeding with 10% FBS. Aliquots of cells were harvested at the times indicated and assayed for Rac1 and the indicated control proteins by immunoblotting. Bar, 5 ╬╝m.<p><b>Copyright information:</b></p><p>Taken from "Rac1 accumulates in the nucleus during the G2 phase of the cell cycle and promotes cell division"</p><p></p><p>The Journal of Cell Biology 2008;181(3):485-496.</p><p>Published online 5 May 2008</p><p>PMCID:PMC2364699.</p><p></p

    Unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted odd ratios for poor outcome according to blood pressure and level of Hcy.

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    <p>*Multivariable model adjusted for age, gender, days hospitalized, onset to hospital admission time, smoking, drinking, history of hypertension, history of hyperglycemia, history of coronary heart disease, history of atrial fibrillation, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia.</p><p>Unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted odd ratios for poor outcome according to blood pressure and level of Hcy.</p

    Baseline characteristics of acute ischemic stroke patients with good outcome or poor outcome.

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    <p>All values are expressed with mean┬▒standard deviation unless otherwise noted. SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; BP, blood pressure; TG, triglycerides; TC, total cholesterol; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; Hcy, homocysteine.</p><p>Baseline characteristics of acute ischemic stroke patients with good outcome or poor outcome.</p
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