887 research outputs found

    Lock acquisition studies for advanced interferometers

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    This document describes some results of time domain simulation for a Fabry-Perot cavity with Advanced LIGO parameters. Future interferometer will employ a high power laser and high finesse cavities. Lock acquisition of arm cavity will be more difficult due to the optical instabilities which are caused by very high power inside the cavity. According to this simulation, the arm cavity should be locked with very low power, and additional hard/software techniques will be needed to establish the first fringe lock. In this paper, possibility of using a new algorithm called 'Guidelock' and a suspension point interferometer are discussed. After lock is acquired, alignment controls must be engaged before increasing the power. This simulation predicts that alignment optical instabilities show up due to a shift of high power beam axis, and they can be stabilized by proper alignment controls

    The Experimental plan of the 4m Resonant Sideband Extraction Prototype for The LCGT

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    The 4m Resonant Sideband Extraction (RSE) interferometer is a planned prototype of the LCGT interferometer. The aim of the experiment is to operate a powerrecycled Broadband RSE interferometer with suspended optics and to achieve diagonalization of length signals of the central part of the interferometer directly through the optical setup. Details of the 4m RSE interferometer control method as well as the design of the experimental setup will be presented

    Phase Coherence in a Driven Double-Well System

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    We analyze the dynamics of the molecular field incoherently pumped by the photoassociation of fermionic atoms and coupled by quantum tunnelling in a double-well potential. The relative phase distribution of the molecular modes in each well and their phase coherence are shown to build up owing to quantum mechanical fluctuations starting from the vacuum state. We identify three qualitatively different steady-state phase distributions, depending on the ratio of the molecule-molecule interaction strength to interwell tunnelling, and examine the crossover from a phase-coherent regime to a phase-incoherent regime as this ratio increases.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figure

    Length Sensing and Control for AdLIGO

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    LIGO Document T060272-00-I (2006

    Control sideband generation for dual-recycled laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors

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    We present a discussion of the problems associated with generation of multiple control sidebands for length sensing and control of dual-recycled, cavity-enhanced Michelson interferometers and the motivation behind more complicated sideband generation methods. We focus on the Mach–Zehnder interferometer as a topological solution to the problem and present results from tests carried out at the Caltech 40 m prototype gravitational wave detector. The consequences for sensing and control for advanced interferometry are discussed, as are the implications for future interferometers such as Advanced LIGO

    Random-phase approximation study of collective excitations in the Bose-Fermi mixed condensate of alkali-metal gases

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    We perform Random Phase Approximation (RPA) study of collective excitations in the bose-fermi mixed degenerate gas of Alkali-metal atoms at T=0. The calculation is done by diagonalization in a model space composed of particle-hole type excitations from the ground state, the latter being obtained from the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii and Thomas-Fermi equations. We investigate strength distributions for different combinations of bose and fermi multipole (LL) operators with L=0,1,2,3L=0,1,2,3. Transition densities and dynamical structure factors are calculated for collective excitations. Comparison with the sum rule prediction for the collective frequency is given. Time dependent behavior of the system after an external impulse is studied.Comment: 28 pages, 13 figures, submitted to Phys. Rev.

    The status of DECIGO

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    DECIGO (DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) is the planned Japanese space gravitational wave antenna, aiming to detect gravitational waves from astrophysically and cosmologically significant sources mainly between 0.1 Hz and 10 Hz and thus to open a new window for gravitational wave astronomy and for the universe. DECIGO will consists of three drag-free spacecraft arranged in an equilateral triangle with 1000 km arm lengths whose relative displacements are measured by a differential Fabry-Perot interferometer, and four units of triangular Fabry-Perot interferometers are arranged on heliocentric orbit around the sun. DECIGO is vary ambitious mission, we plan to launch DECIGO in era of 2030s after precursor satellite mission, B-DECIGO. B-DECIGO is essentially smaller version of DECIGO: B-DECIGO consists of three spacecraft arranged in an triangle with 100 km arm lengths orbiting 2000 km above the surface of the earth. It is hoped that the launch date will be late 2020s for the present

    dc readout experiment at the Caltech 40m prototype interferometer

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    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) operates a 40m prototype interferometer on the Caltech campus. The primary mission of the prototype is to serve as an experimental testbed for upgrades to the LIGO interferometers and for gaining experience with advanced interferometric techniques, including detuned resonant sideband extraction (i.e. signal recycling) and dc readout (optical homodyne detection). The former technique will be employed in Advanced LIGO, and the latter in both Enhanced and Advanced LIGO. Using dc readout for gravitational wave signal extraction has several technical advantages, including reduced laser and oscillator noise couplings as well as reduced shot noise, when compared to the traditional rf readout technique (optical heterodyne detection) currently in use in large-scale ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors. The Caltech 40m laboratory is currently prototyping a dc readout system for a fully suspended interferometric gravitational wave detector. The system includes an optical filter cavity at the interferometer's output port, and the associated controls and optics to ensure that the filter cavity is optimally coupled to the interferometer. We present the results of measurements to characterize noise couplings in rf and dc readout using this system

    A study for reduction of radiation pressure noise in gravitational wave detectors

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    We describe an experimental conceptual design for observation and reduction of radiation pressure noise. The radiation pressure noise is increased in a high finesse cavity with a small mass mirror. In our experiment a Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometer with a homodyne detection scheme will be built with Fabry-Perot cavities of finesse of 10000 containing suspended mirrors of 23 mg. To observe the radiation pressure noise, the goal sensitivity is set to 1×10^(-17) [m/√Hz] at 1 kHz. Then the radiation pressure noise is reduced by adjusting the homodyne phase. To achieve the sensitivity, the other noise sources such as thermal noises, seismic noise and laser frequency noise should be suppressed below 1×10^(-18) [m/√Hz] at 1kHz. The whole interferometer is suspended as a double pendulum on double-layer stacks. As a preliminary setup, a Fabry-Perot cavity of finesse of 800 with a suspended mirror of 100 mg was locked. The current best sensitivity is 1×10^(-15) [m/√Hz] at 1 kHz

    Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin increases the small intestinal permeability in mice and rats

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    Epsilon toxin is a potent neurotoxin produced by Clostridium perfringens types B and D, an anaerobic bacterium that causes enterotoxaemia in ruminants. In the affected animal, it causes oedema of the lungs and brain by damaging the endothelial cells, inducing physiological and morphological changes. Although it is believed to compromise the intestinal barrier, thus entering the gut vasculature, little is known about the mechanism underlying this process. This study characterizes the effects of epsilon toxin on fluid transport and bioelectrical parameters in the small intestine of mice and rats. The enteropooling and the intestinal loop tests, together with the single-pass perfusion assay and in vitro and ex vivo analysis in Ussing's chamber, were all used in combination with histological and ultrastructural analysis of mice and rat small intestine, challenged with or without C. perfringens epsilon toxin. Luminal epsilon toxin induced a time and concentration dependent intestinal fluid accumulation and fall of the transepithelial resistance. Although no evident histological changes were observed, opening of the mucosa tight junction in combination with apoptotic changes in the lamina propria were seen with transmission electron microscopy. These results indicate that C. perfringens epsilon toxin alters the intestinal permeability, predominantly by opening the mucosa tight junction, increasing its permeability to macromolecules, and inducing further degenerative changes in the lamina propria of the bowel. © 2009 Goldstein et al