2,174 research outputs found

    Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and system analysis study, 1985. Volume 2: OTV concept definition and evaluation. Book 4: Operations

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    The benefits of the reusable Space Shuttle and the advent of the new Space Station hold promise for increasingly effective utilization of space by the scientific and commercial as well as military communities. A high energy reusable oribital transfer vehicle (OTV) represents an additional capability which also exhibits potential for enhancing space access by allowing more ambitious missions and at the same time reducing launch costs when compared to existing upper stages. This section, Vol. 2: Book 4, covers launch operations and flight operations. The launch operations section covers analyses of ground based and space based vehicles, launch site facilities, logistics requirements, propellant loading, space based maintenance and aft cargo carrier access options. The flight operations sections contain summary descriptions of ground based and space based OTV missions, operations and support requirements, and a discussion of fleet implications

    Complications of Decompressive Craniectomy

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    Introduction: Persistent elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP), if untreated, may lead to brain ischemia or lack of brain oxygen and even brain death.1-6,10 When standard treatments for elevated ICP are exhausted without any signs of improvement, decompressive craniectomy can be an effective alternative solution.7,19 Decompressive craniectomies (DC) have been used as a method of controlling intracranial pressure in patients with cerebral edema secondary to cerebral ischemia, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and traumatic brain injury (TBI), among others. 8-10 Several studies over the years have demonstrated the efficacy of this procedure.7-9,11,35,36 However, consensus is still lacking in the utility of DC as an effective first tier treatment for intractable intracranial pressure due to the rudimentary neurological outcome assessments, and the many complications associated with this procedure.11,12,59 There are a limited number of studies that have looked at complications secondary to the procedure itself.13-18 The majority of these studies only investigated the impact of this procedure in patients with traumatic brain injury. The purpose of this study is to investigate the rates of various complications associated with the decompressive craniectomy procedure in patients that did not suffer from traumatic brain injury, and to determine whether the same associations between preoperative parameters and development of complications can be made

    Health literacy and complementary and alternative medicine use among underserved inpatients in a safety net hospital

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    Little is known about the relationship between health literacy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in low-income racially diverse patients. The authors conducted a secondary analysis of baseline data from 581 participants enrolled in the Re-Engineered Discharge clinical trial. The authors assessed sociodemographic characteristics, CAM use, and health literacy. They used bivariate and multivariate logistic regression to test the association of health literacy with four patterns of CAM use. Of the 581 participants, 50% reported using any CAM, 28% used provider-delivered CAM therapies, 27% used relaxation techniques, and 21% used herbal medicine. Of those with higher health literacy, 55% used CAM. Although there was no association between health literacy and CAM use for non-Hispanic Black participants, non-Hispanic White (OR = 3.68, 95% CI [1.27, 9.99]) and Hispanic/other race (OR = 3.40, 95% CI [1.46, 7.91]) participants were significantly more likely to use CAM if they had higher health literacy. For each racial/ethnic group, there were higher odds of using relaxation techniques among those with higher health literacy. Underserved hospitalized patients use CAM. Regardless of race, patients with high health literacy make greater use of relaxation techniques

    Accuracy of dementia diagnosis—a direct comparison between radiologists and a computerized method

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    There has been recent interest in the application of machine learning techniques to neuroimaging-based diagnosis. These methods promise fully automated, standard PC-based clinical decisions, unbiased by variable radiological expertise. We recently used support vector machines (SVMs) to separate sporadic Alzheimer's disease from normal ageing and from fronto-temporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). In this study, we compare the results to those obtained by radiologists. A binary diagnostic classification was made by six radiologists with different levels of experience on the same scans and information that had been previously analysed with SVM. SVMs correctly classified 95% (sensitivity/specificity: 95/95) of sporadic Alzheimer's disease and controls into their respective groups. Radiologists correctly classified 65–95% (median 89%; sensitivity/specificity: 88/90) of scans. SVM correctly classified another set of sporadic Alzheimer's disease in 93% (sensitivity/specificity: 100/86) of cases, whereas radiologists ranged between 80% and 90% (median 83%; sensitivity/specificity: 80/85). SVMs were better at separating patients with sporadic Alzheimer's disease from those with FTLD (SVM 89%; sensitivity/specificity: 83/95; compared to radiological range from 63% to 83%; median 71%; sensitivity/specificity: 64/76). Radiologists were always accurate when they reported a high degree of diagnostic confidence. The results show that well-trained neuroradiologists classify typical Alzheimer's disease-associated scans comparable to SVMs. However, SVMs require no expert knowledge and trained SVMs can readily be exchanged between centres for use in diagnostic classification. These results are encouraging and indicate a role for computerized diagnostic methods in clinical practice

    Use of fecal volatile organic compound analysis to discriminate between nonvaccinated and BCG-Vaccinated cattle prior to and after \u3ci\u3eMycobacterium bovis\u3c/i\u3e challenge

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    Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease of global public health concern. Development of diagnostic tools to improve test accuracy and efficiency in domestic livestock and enable surveillance of wildlife reservoirs would improve disease management and eradication efforts. Use of volatile organic compound analysis in breath and fecal samples is being developed and optimized as a means to detect disease in humans and animals. In this study we demonstrate that VOCs present in fecal samples can be used to discriminate between non-vaccinated and BCG-vaccinated cattle prior to and after Mycobacterium bovis challenge

    Use of fecal volatile organic compound analysis to discriminate between nonvaccinated and BCG-Vaccinated cattle prior to and after \u3ci\u3eMycobacterium bovis\u3c/i\u3e challenge

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    Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease of global public health concern. Development of diagnostic tools to improve test accuracy and efficiency in domestic livestock and enable surveillance of wildlife reservoirs would improve disease management and eradication efforts. Use of volatile organic compound analysis in breath and fecal samples is being developed and optimized as a means to detect disease in humans and animals. In this study we demonstrate that VOCs present in fecal samples can be used to discriminate between non-vaccinated and BCG-vaccinated cattle prior to and after Mycobacterium bovis challenge

    Spectral Fingerprints Predict Functional Chemistry of Native Plants Across Sagebrush-Steppe Landscapes

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    Landscapes are changing and under threat from anthropogenic activities, decreasing land cover, contaminated air and water quality, and climate change. These changes impact native communities and their functions at all spatial scales. A major functional trait being affected across these communities is nitrogen. Nitrogen supports plant nutrient cycling and growth, serves as an indicator for crude protein and productivity, and offers quality forage for wild and domestic herbivores. We need better ways to monitor nitrogen across space and time. Current monitoring is elaborate, time-consuming, and expensive. We propose drawing from agricultural methodologies to incorporate near-infrared spectroscopy as a technique in detecting and monitoring nitrogen concentrations across a threatened shrub-steppe ecosystem. We are currently developing calibration equations for nitrogen in sagebrush across four species (Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis, A. tripartita, A. arbuscula, A. nova), three study sites and two seasons. Preliminary results suggest that nitrogen can be accurately predicted across all sites, species, and seasons, explaining 75-90% of the variation in nitrogen. These results indicate that near infrared spectroscopy offers a rapid, noninvasive diagnostic tool for assessing nitrogen in wild systems. This advancing technology is important because it economizes the collection of ecological data in rapidly changing landscapes and provides land managers and researchers with valuable information about the health and sustainability of their lands

    High-energy synchrotron X-ray tomography coupled with digital image correlation highlights likely failure points inside ITER toroidal field conductors

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    From Springer Nature via Jisc Publications RouterHistory: received 2021-02-01, accepted 2021-10-22, registration 2021-11-09, pub-electronic 2021-11-30, online 2021-11-30, collection 2021-12Publication status: PublishedFunder: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council; doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000266; Grant(s): EP/M010619/1Abstract: Two sections of heat-treated (HT) and non-heat-treated (NHT) Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC) of a design similar to the ITER tokomak have been imaged using very high energy X-ray tomography at the ESRF beamline ID19. The sample images were collected at four temperatures down to 77 K. These results showed a greater degree of movement, bundle distortion and touching strands in the NHT sample. The HT sample showed non-linear movements with temperature especially close to 77 K; increasing non-circularity of the superconducting fibre bundles towards the periphery of the CICC, and touching bundles throughout the CICC. The images have highlighted where future design might improve potential weakness, in particular at the outer perimeters of the conductor and the individual sub-cable, ‘petal’ wraps

    Physiological and behavioural evaluation of common anaesthesia practices in the rainbow trout

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    Anaesthetic drugs are commonly administered to fish in aquaculture, research and veterinary contexts. Anaesthesia causes temporary absence of consciousness and may reduce the stress and/or pain associated with handling and certain invasive procedures. The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is a widely-used model species with relevance to both aquaculture and natural ecosystems. This study sought to establish the relative acute impact of commonly used anaesthetics on rainbow trout when used for anaesthesia or euthanasia by exploring their effects on aversion behaviour and stress physiology. Five widely used anaesthetics were investigated at two concentrations reflective of common laboratory practises: MS-222, benzocaine, 2-phenoxyethanol, etomidate and eugenol. The anaesthetics were administered via immersion and fish were: 1) euthanised with anaesthetic; or 2) allowed to recover from deep plane anaesthesia; or 3) subjected to a conditioned place avoidance paradigm. Behaviour, opercular beat rate and plasma cortisol concentrations and cortisol release rates to water were quantified to investigate the effects of the five drugs. Based upon longer induction to deep plane anaesthesia, and increased plasma cortisol levels post-anaesthesia the widely-used and recommended anaesthetic MS-222 may be relatively stressful for rainbow trout. Whereas 2-phenoxyethanol, due to a combination of quicker induction, reduced aversive behavioural response during anaesthesia and lower post-anaesthesia plasma cortisol levels may be a more advisable alternative. It is crucial for the welfare of fish that the use of anaesthetics is as humane as possible and thus these findings have important implications for the welfare and husbandry of captive rainbow trout
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