18 research outputs found

    Menstrual Hygiene Management: An Overview of Global Awareness

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    In developing nations, menstrual hygiene management (MHM) is a problem that is frequently disregarded. Women and girls who are menstruating are compelled to live in seclusion, are subject to mobility limitations and dietary restrictions, and may be barred from engaging in daily activities. Due to its relationship with social and cultural components of a natural process that is sometimes shrouded in ingrained shame and taboos, menstrual hygiene waste management has not gotten enough attention and, as a result, has not been adequately researched. As a result, information on the amounts and whole lifespan of the created trash is either lacking or fraught with uncertainty. However, this work raises important and pertinent issues that may impact on the environment as well as the health, equality, and dignity of women. The present review also identifies the knowledge gaps that still need to be filled and offers potential solutions for the near future. Menstrual hygiene requires immediate consideration in the context of a pandemic, as does understanding the potential role that waste produced, for instance, in refugee camps, may have in spreading SARS-CoV-2. The current analysis suggests potential intervention tactics intended to remedy this ignorance. In order to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 3.7 and 6.2, which address women's healthcare and hygiene requirements, there looked to be room for interventions through a coordinated national effort to promote awareness of MHM among women utilizing a variety of media outlets

    Formulation Development and Evaluation of Pravastatin-Loaded Nanogel for Hyperlipidemia Management

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    Hyperlipidemia is a crucial risk factor for the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis, ultimately leading to cardiovascular disease. The nanogel-based nanoplatform has emerged as an extremely promising drug delivery technology. Pravastatin Sodium (PS) is a cholesterol-lowering drug used to treat hyperlipidemia. This study aimed to fabricate Pravastatin-loaded nanogel for evaluation of its effect in hyperlipidemia treatment. Pravastatin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (PS-CS-NPs) were prepared by the ionic gelation method; then, these prepared NPs were converted to nanogel by adding a specified amount of 5% poloxamer solution. Various parameters, including drug entrapment efficacy, in vitro drug release, and hemolytic activity of the developed and optimized formulation, were evaluated. The in vitro drug release of the nanogel formulation revealed the sustained release (59.63% in 24 h) of the drug. The drug excipients compatibility studies revealed no interaction between the drug and the screened excipients. Higher drug entrapment efficacy was observed. The hemolytic activity showed lesser toxicity in nanoformulation than the pure drug solution. These findings support the prospective use of orally administered pravastatin-loaded nanogel as an effective and safe nano delivery system in hyperlipidemia treatment

    Formulation Development and Evaluation of Pravastatin-Loaded Nanogel for Hyperlipidemia Management.

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    Hyperlipidemia is a crucial risk factor for the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis, ultimately leading to cardiovascular disease. The nanogel-based nanoplatform has emerged as an extremely promising drug delivery technology. Pravastatin Sodium (PS) is a cholesterol-lowering drug used to treat hyperlipidemia. This study aimed to fabricate Pravastatin-loaded nanogel for evaluation of its effect in hyperlipidemia treatment. Pravastatin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (PS-CS-NPs) were prepared by the ionic gelation method; then, these prepared NPs were converted to nanogel by adding a specified amount of 5% poloxamer solution. Various parameters, including drug entrapment efficacy, in vitro drug release, and hemolytic activity of the developed and optimized formulation, were evaluated. The in vitro drug release of the nanogel formulation revealed the sustained release (59.63% in 24 h) of the drug. The drug excipients compatibility studies revealed no interaction between the drug and the screened excipients. Higher drug entrapment efficacy was observed. The hemolytic activity showed lesser toxicity in nanoformulation than the pure drug solution. These findings support the prospective use of orally administered pravastatin-loaded nanogel as an effective and safe nano delivery system in hyperlipidemia treatment

    Nanoarchitectures in Management of Fungal Diseases: An Overview

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    Fungal infections, from mild itching to fatal infections, lead to chronic diseases and death. Antifungal agents have incorporated chemical compounds and natural products/phytoconstituents in the management of fungal diseases. In contrast to antibacterial research, novel antifungal drugs have progressed more swiftly because of their mild existence and negligible resistance of infections to antifungal bioactivities. Nanotechnology-based carriers have gained much attention due to their magnificent abilities. Nanoarchitectures have served as excellent carriers/drug delivery systems (DDS) for delivering antifungal drugs with improved antifungal activities, bioavailability, targeted action, and reduced cytotoxicity. This review outlines the different fungal diseases and their treatment strategies involving various nanocarrier-based techniques such as liposomes, transfersomes, ethosomes, transethosomes, niosomes, spanlastics, dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles, polymer nanocomposites, metallic nanoparticles, carbon nanomaterials, and nanoemulsions, among other nanotechnological approaches

    Synthesis and characterization of nanobiochar from rice husk biochar for the removal of safranin and malachite green from water

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    Xenobiotic pollution in environment is a potential risk to marine life, and human health. Nanobiotechnology is an advanced and emerging solution for the removal of environmental pollutants. Adsorption-based technologies are being used to alleviate the global prevalence of xenobiotics like dyes, due to their high efficacy and cost effectiveness. Current study explored the potential of nanobiochar syntehsized via ultrasonication and centrifugation from rice husk for dye removal from water. It involves the synthesis of nanobiochar from rice husk biochar for removal of Safranin, Malachite green, and a mixture of both from aqueous water. Biochar was synthesized through pyrolysis at 600 ÔŚŽC for 2 h. To convert it into nanobiochar, sonication and centrifugation techniques were applied. The yield obtained was 27.5% for biochar and 0.9% for nanobiochar. Nanobiochar analysis through Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (FTIR), X-ray Power Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested its crystalline nature having minerals rich in silicon, with a cracked and disintegrated carbon structure due to high temperature and processing treatments. Removal of dyes by nanobiochar was evaluated by changing different physical parameters i.e., nanobiochar dose, pH, and temperature. Pseudo-first order model and pseudo-second order model were applied to studying the adsorption kinetics mechanism. Kinetics for adsorption of dyes followed the pseudo-second order model suggesting the removal of dyes by process of chemical sorption. High adsorption was found at a higher concentration of nanobiochar, high temperature, and neutral pH. Maximum elimination percentages of safranin, malachite green, and a mixture of dyes were obtained as 91.7%, 87.5%, and 85% respectively. We conclude that nanobiochar could be a solution for dye removal from aqueous media.Biotecnolog├ş

    Advances in nanomaterial-based immunosensors for prostate cancer screening

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    Prostate cancer is one of the most common health hazards for men worldwide, specifically in Western countries. Rapid prostate cancer screening by analyzing the prostate-specific antigen present in male serum has brought about a sharp decline in the mortality index of this disease. Immunoassay technology quantifies the target analyte in the sample using the antigen-antibody reaction. Immunoassays are now pivotal in disease diagnostics, drug monitoring, and pharmacokinetics. Recently, immunosensors have gained momentum in delivering better results with high specificity and lower limit of detection (LOD). Nanomaterials like gold, silver, and copper exhibit numerous exceptional features and their use in developing immunosensors have garnered excellent results in the diagnostic field. This review highlights the recent and different immunoassay techniques used to detect prostate-specific antigens and discusses the advances in nanomaterial-based immunosensors to detect prostate cancer efficiently. The review also explores the importance of specific biomarkers and nanomaterials-based biosensors with good selectivity and sensitivity to prostate cancer

    Nanomaterials and Their Impact on the Immune System.

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    Nanomaterials have been the focus of intensive development and research in the medical and industrial sectors over the past several decades. Some studies have found that these compounds can have a detrimental impact on living organisms, including their cellular components. Despite the obvious advantages of using nanomaterials in a wide range of applications, there is sometimes skepticism caused by the lack of substantial proof that evaluates potential toxicities. The interactions of nanoparticles (NPs) with cells of the immune system and their biomolecule pathways are an area of interest for researchers. It is possible to modify NPs so that they are not recognized by the immune system or so that they suppress or stimulate the immune system in a targeted manner. In this review, we look at the literature on nanomaterials for immunostimulation and immunosuppression and their impact on how changing the physicochemical features of the particles could alter their interactions with immune cells for the better or for the worse (immunotoxicity). We also look into whether the NPs have a unique or unexpected (but desired) effect on the immune system, and whether the surface grafting of polymers or surface coatings makes stealth nanomaterials that the immune system cannot find and get rid of

    Application of nanotechnology to herbal antioxidants as improved phytomedicine: An expanding horizon.

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    Phytotherapy, based on medicinal plants, have excellent potential in managing several diseases. A vital part of the healthcare system is herbal medicines, consisting of therapeutic agents with high safety profile and no or least adverse effects. Herbs or medicinal plants show anticancer, antioxidant, and gene-protective activity, which is useful for pharmaceutical industries. In vitro, the extract of antioxidant compounds prevents the growth of colon and liver cancer cells, followed by a dose-dependent method. The screening of extracts is done by using in vitro models. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals lead to diseases based on age which promotes oxidative stress. Different types of ROSs available have central roles in the normal physiology and functioning of processes. Herbal or traditional plant medicines have rich antioxidant activity. Despite the limited literature on the health effect of herbal extract or spices. There are many studies examining the encouraging health effects of single phytochemicals instigating from the medicinal plant. This review provides a detailed overview on herbal antioxidants and how application of nanotechnology can improve its biological activity in managing several major diseases, and having no reported side effects

    FOSAMPRENAVIR CALCIUM LOADED DENDRIMERS: FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT, EVALUATION AND HEMOLYTIC TOXICITY STUDIES

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    Objective: Dendrimers are the three-dimensional polymeric architectural motif, which bestows an advanced platform for drug delivery and drug targeting. Dendrimers are a novel cargo system that can accommodate larger amounts of the drug in its structure by conjugating the drug with terminal amine functional groups. The present work was designed to develop Fosamprenavir calcium-loaded 5th generation poly(propylene imine) (5G PPI) dendrimers for effective treatment of Human immunodeficiency virus. Methods: The drug loading was carried out using a direct method with continuous stirring for 48 h. The sample was characterized using different analytical techniques and also evaluated for drug entrapment, drug release, and release kinetics. The hemolytic toxicity studies were also performed and evaluated based on % hemolysis and surface morphology of RBCs after incubating with the prepared formulation. Results: The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectral analysis confirms the conjugation of the Fosamprenavir calcium and dendrimers. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC) also confirmed the conjugation of the drug with dendrimers. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showcased the spherical floral arrangement of the dendrimer structure. The drug entrapment studies revealed 69.83┬▒0.31% of the drug encapsulated in the dendrimer structure. The drug release studies showed 80.18┬▒0.65% in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 and 68.09┬▒1.78% in acetate buffer pH 5.0. The drug release kinetics showed that the Higuchi release pattern was followed for the release pattern of pH 5 and pH 7.4. The hemolysis study revealed that the conjugation of the drug with 5G PPI dendrimers drastically reduces the hemolysis. Conclusion: Thus, from the studies, it can be concluded that an efficient drug delivery system can be developed for the anti-retroviral drug Fosamprenavir calcium by loading on 5G PPI dendrimers

    Aptamers Versus Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF): A New Battle against Ovarian Cancer

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    Cancer is one of the diseases that causes a high mortality as it involves unregulated and abnormal cell growth proliferation that can manifest in any body region. One of the typical ovarian cancer symptoms is damage to the female reproductive system. The death rate can be reduced through early detection of the ovarian cancer. Promising probes that can detect ovarian cancer are suitable aptamers. Aptamers, i.e., so-called chemical antibodies, have a strong affinity for the target biomarker and can typically be identified starting from a random library of oligonucleotides. Compared with other probes, ovarian cancer targeting using aptamers has demonstrated superior detection effectiveness. Various aptamers have been selected to detect the ovarian tumor biomarker, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The present review highlights the development of particular aptamers that target VEGF and detect ovarian cancer at its earliest stages. The therapeutic efficacy of aptamers in ovarian cancer treatment is also discussed
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