5 research outputs found

    Cooling Fermions in an Optical Lattice by Adiabatic Demagnetization

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    The Fermi-Hubbard model describes ultracold fermions in an optical lattice and exhibits antiferromagnetic long-ranged order below the N\'{e}el temperature. However, reaching this temperature in the lab has remained an elusive goal. In other atomic systems, such as trapped ions, low temperatures have been successfully obtained by adiabatic demagnetization, in which a strong effective magnetic field is applied to a spin-polarized system, and the magnetic field is adiabatically reduced to zero. Unfortunately, applying this approach to the Fermi-Hubbard model encounters a fundamental obstacle: the SU(2)SU(2) symmetry introduces many level crossings that prevent the system from reaching the ground state, even in principle. However, by breaking the SU(2)SU(2) symmetry with a spin-dependent tunneling, we show that adiabatic demagnetization can achieve low temperature states. Using density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations in one dimension, we numerically find that demagnetization protocols successfully reach low temperature states of a spin-anisotropic Hubbard model, and we discuss how to optimize this protocol for experimental viability. By subsequently ramping spin-dependent tunnelings to spin-independent tunnelings, we expect that our protocol can be employed to produce low-temperature states of the Fermi-Hubbard Model.Comment: References adde

    Scalar dark matter vortex stabilization with black holes

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    Galaxies and their dark-matter halos are commonly presupposed to spin. But it is an open question how this spin manifests in halos and soliton cores made of scalar dark matter (SDM, including fuzzy/wave/ultralight-axion dark matter). One way spin could manifest in a necessarily irrotational SDM velocity field is with a vortex. But recent results have cast doubt on this scenario, finding that vortices are generally unstable except with substantial repulsive self-interaction. In this paper, we introduce an alternative route to stability: in both (non-relativistic) analytic calculations and simulations, a black hole or other central mass at least as massive as a soliton can stabilize a vortex within it. This conclusion may also apply to AU-scale halos bound to the sun and stellar-mass-scale Bose stars.Comment: Accepted by JCAP. 22 pages, 5 figures. Supplementary animations at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7675830 or https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLHrf0iQS5SY7Xt2sjqskF3kmHd00Hrdf