1,629 research outputs found

    Land-surface influences on weather and climate

    Get PDF
    Land-surface influences on weather and climate are reviewed. The interrelationship of vegetation, evapotranspiration, atmospheric circulation, and climate is discussed. Global precipitation, soil moisture, the seasonal water cycle, heat transfer, and atmospheric temperature are among the parameters considered in the context of a general biosphere model

    Numerical simulation of the clustering of constant-volume balloons in the global domain

    Get PDF
    Numerical simulation of motion and clustering of balloons originally randomly spaced in upper and lower tropospher

    A Numerical General Circulation Experiment for the Atmosphere of Mars

    Get PDF
    Numerical model for simulating general circulation of atmosphere of Mar

    Numerical simulation of the world ocean circulation

    Get PDF
    A multi-level model, based on the primitive equations, is developed for simulating the temperature and velocity fields produced in the world ocean by differential heating and surface wind stress. The model ocean has constant depth, free slip at the lower boundary, and neglects momentum advection; so that there is no energy exchange between the barotropic and baroclinic components of the motion, although the former influences the latter through temperature advection. The ocean model was designed to be coupled to the UCLA atmospheric general circulation model, for the study of the dynamics of climate and climate changes. But here, the model is tested by prescribing the observed seasonally varying surface wind stress and the incident solar radiation, the surface air temperature and humidity, cloudiness and the surface wind speed, which, together with the predicted ocean surface temperature, determine the surface flux of radiant energy, sensible heat and latent heat

    On the design of an interactive biosphere for the GLAS general circulation model

    Get PDF
    Improving the realism and accuracy of the GLAS general circulation model (by adding an interactive biosphere that will simulate the transfers of latent and sensible heat from land surface to atmosphere as functions of the atmospheric conditions and the morphology and physiology of the vegetation) is proposed

    The sensitivity of numerically simulated climates to land-surface boundary conditions

    Get PDF
    Eleven sensitivity experiments that were made with general circulation models to see how land-surface boundary conditions can influence the rainfall, temperature, and motion fields of the atmosphere are discussed. In one group of experiments, different soil moistures or albedos are prescribed as time-invariant boundary conditions. In a second group, different soil moistures or different albedos are initially prescribed, and the soil moisture (but not the albedo) is allowed to change with time according to the governing equations for soil moisture. In a third group, the results of constant versus time-dependent soil moistures are compared

    Modeling of interactions between biosphere and atmosphere on the global scale

    Get PDF
    Simulations of weather and climate with general circulation models show that the circulation and rainfall are sensitive to the transfers of radiation, sensible heat, water vapor, and momentum across the atmosphere land surface interface. Because, in nature, these transfers depend in large measure on the morphological and physiological characteristics of the surface vegetation, an interactive biosphere is needed for GCM's. The simple model of the biosphere (SiB) that the authors have constructed is based on the recognized difference between ground cover vegetation (grasses and other herbaceous plants) and canopy vegetation (trees and shrubs), where the latter act like elevated blocks of porous material which efficiently extract momentum from the air that flows through them; by a large number of multiple reflections enhance the absorption of the incident solar radiation; when the canopy is wet, act like well ventilated psychrometers which extract sensible heat from the air and produce a negative Bowen ratio; and, in all of these ways, behave differently from ground cover vegetation. The complete set of governing equations of SiB, whereby the various allowable combinations of trees, ground covers, and bare ground, in interaction with the atmosphere, determine all of the vegetation dependent transfers at the land surface, have been presented and described

    Numerical simulation of the 1970 to 1971 Eole experiment

    Get PDF
    Numerical simulation of global atmospheric circulation for predicting performance of balloons in Eole experimen
    • …