7 research outputs found

    Statistical significance of rich-club phenomena in complex networks

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    We propose that the rich-club phenomena in complex networks should be defined in the spirit of bootstrapping, in which a null model is adopted to assess the statistical significance of the rich-club detected. Our method can be served as a definition of rich-club phenomenon and is applied to analyzing three real networks and three model networks. The results improve significantly compared with previously reported results. We report a dilemma with an exceptional example, showing that there does not exist an omnipotent definition for the rich-club phenomenon.Comment: 3 Revtex pages + 5 figure

    Evaluating Local Community Methods in Networks

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    We present a new benchmarking procedure that is unambiguous and specific to local community-finding methods, allowing one to compare the accuracy of various methods. We apply this to new and existing algorithms. A simple class of synthetic benchmark networks is also developed, capable of testing properties specific to these local methods.Comment: 8 pages, 9 figures, code included with sourc

    Subgraphs in random networks

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    Understanding the subgraph distribution in random networks is important for modelling complex systems. In classic Erdos networks, which exhibit a Poissonian degree distribution, the number of appearances of a subgraph G with n nodes and g edges scales with network size as \mean{G} ~ N^{n-g}. However, many natural networks have a non-Poissonian degree distribution. Here we present approximate equations for the average number of subgraphs in an ensemble of random sparse directed networks, characterized by an arbitrary degree sequence. We find new scaling rules for the commonly occurring case of directed scale-free networks, in which the outgoing degree distribution scales as P(k) ~ k^{-\gamma}. Considering the power exponent of the degree distribution, \gamma, as a control parameter, we show that random networks exhibit transitions between three regimes. In each regime the subgraph number of appearances follows a different scaling law, \mean{G} ~ N^{\alpha}, where \alpha=n-g+s-1 for \gamma<2, \alpha=n-g+s+1-\gamma for 2<\gamma<\gamma_c, and \alpha=n-g for \gamma>\gamma_c, s is the maximal outdegree in the subgraph, and \gamma_c=s+1. We find that certain subgraphs appear much more frequently than in Erdos networks. These results are in very good agreement with numerical simulations. This has implications for detecting network motifs, subgraphs that occur in natural networks significantly more than in their randomized counterparts.Comment: 8 pages, 5 figure

    Constructing and sampling directed graphs with given degree sequences

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    he interactions between the components of complex networks are often directed. Proper modeling of such systems frequently requires the construction of ensembles of digraphs with a given sequence of in- and out-degrees. As the number of simple labeled graphs with a given degree sequence is typically very large even for short sequences, sampling methods are needed for statistical studies. Currently, there are two main classes of methods that generate samples. One of the existing methods first generates a restricted class of graphs and then uses a Markov chain Monte-Carlo algorithm based on edge swaps to generate other realizations. As the mixing time of this process is still unknown, the independence of the samples is not well controlled. The other class of methods is based on the configuration model that may lead to unacceptably many sample rejections due to self-loops and multiple edges. Here we present an algorithm that can directly construct all possible realizations of a given bi-degree sequence by simple digraphs. Our method is rejection-free, guarantees the independence of the constructed samples and provides their weight. The weights can then be used to compute statistical averages of network observables as if they were obtained from uniformly distributed sampling or from any other chosen distribution