21 research outputs found

    Advances in the Hierarchical Emergent Behaviors (HEB) approach to autonomous vehicles

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    Widespread deployment of autonomous vehicles (AVs) presents formidable challenges in terms on handling scalability and complexity, particularly regarding vehicular reaction in the face of unforeseen corner cases. Hierarchical Emergent Behaviors (HEB) is a scalable architecture based on the concepts of emergent behaviors and hierarchical decomposition. It relies on a few simple but powerful rules to govern local vehicular interactions. Rather than requiring prescriptive programming of every possible scenario, HEB’s approach relies on global behaviors induced by the application of these local, well-understood rules. Our first two papers on HEB focused on a primal set of rules applied at the first hierarchical level. On the path to systematize a solid design methodology, this paper proposes additional rules for the second level, studies through simulations the resultant richer set of emergent behaviors, and discusses the communica-tion mechanisms between the different levels.Peer ReviewedPostprint (author's final draft

    Emergent behaviors in the Internet of things: The ultimate ultra-large-scale system

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    To reach its potential, the Internet of Things (IoT) must break down the silos that limit applications' interoperability and hinder their manageability. Doing so leads to the building of ultra-large-scale systems (ULSS) in several areas, including autonomous vehicles, smart cities, and smart grids. The scope of ULSS is both large and complex. Thus, the authors propose Hierarchical Emergent Behaviors (HEB), a paradigm that builds on the concepts of emergent behavior and hierarchical organization. Rather than explicitly programming all possible decisions in the vast space of ULSS scenarios, HEB relies on the emergent behaviors induced by local rules at each level of the hierarchy. The authors discuss the modifications to classical IoT architectures required by HEB, as well as the new challenges. They also illustrate the HEB concepts in reference to autonomous vehicles. This use case paves the way to the discussion of new lines of research.Damian Roca work was supported by a Doctoral Scholarship provided by Fundación La Caixa. This work has been supported by the Spanish Government (Severo Ochoa grants SEV2015-0493) and by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (contracts TIN2015-65316-P).Peer ReviewedPostprint (author's final draft

    Tackling IoT ultra large scale systems: Fog computing in support of hierarchical emergent behaviors

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    The Internet of Things (IoT) marks a phase transition in the evolution of the Internet, distinguished by a massive connectivity and the interaction with the physical world. The organic evolution of IoT requires the consideration of three dimensions: scale, organization, and context. These dimensions are particularly relevant in Ultra Large Scale Systems (ULSS), of which autonomous vehicles is a prime example. Fog Computing is well positioned to support contextual awareness and communication, critical for ULSS. The design and orchestration of ULSS require fresh approaches, new organizing principles. A recent paper proposed Hierarchical Emergent Behaviors (HEB), an architecture that builds on established concepts of emergent behaviors and hierarchical decomposition and organization. HEB‚Äôs local rules induce emergent behaviors, i.e., useful behaviors not explicitly programmed. In this chapter we take a first step to validate HEB concepts through the study of two basic self-driven car ‚Äúprimitives‚ÄĚ: exiting a platoon formation, and maneuvering in anticipation of obstacles beyond the range of on-board sensors. Fog nodes provide the critical contextual information required.Damian Roca work was supported by a Doctoral Scholarship provided by Fundaci√≥n La Caixa. This work has been supported by the Spanish Government (Severo Ochoa grants SEV2015-0493) and by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (contracts TIN2015-65316-P).Peer ReviewedPostprint (author's final draft

    Adaptive Control of Markov Chains: An Optimization Oriented Approach (Queueing Networks, Stochastic Models, Computer)

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    100 p.Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1985.In this thesis we consider the control of a dynamic system modeled as a Markov chain. The transition probability matrix of the Markov chain depends on the control u and also on an unknown parameter (alpha)('o). The unknown parameter belongs to a given finite set A. The performance of the system is measured by a long run average cost criterion. A direct approach to the optimization of the performance is not feasible. A common procedure calls for an on-line estimation of the unknown parameter and the minimization of the cost functional using the estimate in lieu of the true parameter. This certainty equivalence (CE) solution may fail to achieve optimal performance.We give a game theoretic interpretation of the set of possible equilibria of the system when the CE controller is used. This interpretation suggests a new optimization oriented approach to adaptive control. We consider a compatible functional which simultaneously takes care of the estimation and control aspects of the problem. The global minimum of this composite functional coincides with the minimum of the original functional. Thus its joint minimization with respect to control and parameter estimates would yield the optimal control policy. Although joint minimization is not feasible, it suggests an algorithm that asymptotically achieves the desired goal. In fact, we prove that the adaptive control law converges to the optimal one in a Cesaro sense and the optimal performance is attained almost surely. We also show that when a strong identifiability condition holds, the probability that the control to be applied at time t differs from the optimal one is upper bounded by a term that decreases geometrically in t. Upper bounds for the modeling accuracy that guarantees convergence of the algorithm to the control law associated with one of the members of the possible imperfect modeling set are obtained.We discuss the applicability of the proposed algorithm to Queueing Systems, in general, and multiprogrammed computer models in particular.U of I OnlyRestricted to the U of I community idenfinitely during batch ingest of legacy ETD

    Adaptive Control of Markov Chains: An Optimization Oriented Approach

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    Joint Services Electronics Program/ N00014-84-C-0149, NSF INT 80-18622, AFOSR 84-0054U of I OnlyRestricted to UIUC communit

    Advances in the Hierarchical Emergent Behaviors (HEB) approach to autonomous vehicles

    No full text
    Widespread deployment of autonomous vehicles (AVs) presents formidable challenges in terms on handling scalability and complexity, particularly regarding vehicular reaction in the face of unforeseen corner cases. Hierarchical Emergent Behaviors (HEB) is a scalable architecture based on the concepts of emergent behaviors and hierarchical decomposition. It relies on a few simple but powerful rules to govern local vehicular interactions. Rather than requiring prescriptive programming of every possible scenario, HEB’s approach relies on global behaviors induced by the application of these local, well-understood rules. Our first two papers on HEB focused on a primal set of rules applied at the first hierarchical level. On the path to systematize a solid design methodology, this paper proposes additional rules for the second level, studies through simulations the resultant richer set of emergent behaviors, and discusses the communica-tion mechanisms between the different levels.Peer Reviewe

    Advances in the Hierarchical Emergent Behaviors (HEB) approach to autonomous vehicles

    No full text
    Widespread deployment of autonomous vehicles (AVs) presents formidable challenges in terms on handling scalability and complexity, particularly regarding vehicular reaction in the face of unforeseen corner cases. Hierarchical Emergent Behaviors (HEB) is a scalable architecture based on the concepts of emergent behaviors and hierarchical decomposition. It relies on a few simple but powerful rules to govern local vehicular interactions. Rather than requiring prescriptive programming of every possible scenario, HEB’s approach relies on global behaviors induced by the application of these local, well-understood rules. Our first two papers on HEB focused on a primal set of rules applied at the first hierarchical level. On the path to systematize a solid design methodology, this paper proposes additional rules for the second level, studies through simulations the resultant richer set of emergent behaviors, and discusses the communica-tion mechanisms between the different levels.Peer Reviewe

    Tackling IoT ultra large scale systems: Fog computing in support of hierarchical emergent behaviors

    No full text
    The Internet of Things (IoT) marks a phase transition in the evolution of the Internet, distinguished by a massive connectivity and the interaction with the physical world. The organic evolution of IoT requires the consideration of three dimensions: scale, organization, and context. These dimensions are particularly relevant in Ultra Large Scale Systems (ULSS), of which autonomous vehicles is a prime example. Fog Computing is well positioned to support contextual awareness and communication, critical for ULSS. The design and orchestration of ULSS require fresh approaches, new organizing principles. A recent paper proposed Hierarchical Emergent Behaviors (HEB), an architecture that builds on established concepts of emergent behaviors and hierarchical decomposition and organization. HEB‚Äôs local rules induce emergent behaviors, i.e., useful behaviors not explicitly programmed. In this chapter we take a first step to validate HEB concepts through the study of two basic self-driven car ‚Äúprimitives‚ÄĚ: exiting a platoon formation, and maneuvering in anticipation of obstacles beyond the range of on-board sensors. Fog nodes provide the critical contextual information required.Damian Roca work was supported by a Doctoral Scholarship provided by Fundaci√≥n La Caixa. This work has been supported by the Spanish Government (Severo Ochoa grants SEV2015-0493) and by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (contracts TIN2015-65316-P).Peer Reviewe

    Emergent Behaviors in the Internet of Things: The Ultimate Ultra-Large-Scale System

    No full text
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