5,128 research outputs found

    Large-scale filaments--Newtonian vs. modified dynamics

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    Eisenstein Loeb and Turner (ELT) have recently proposed a method for estimating the dynamical masses of large-scale filaments, whereby the filament is modeled by an axisymmetric, isothermal cylinder, for which ELT derive a global relation between the (constant) velocity dispersion and the total line density. We first show that the model assumptions of ELT can be relaxed materially: an exact relation between the velocity and line density is derived for any cylinder (not necessarily axisymmetric), with an arbitrary constituent distribution function (so isothermality need not be assumed). We then consider the same problem in the context of the modified dynamics (MOND). After a brief comparison between scaling properties in the two theories, we study idealized MOND model filaments. A preliminary application to the segment of the Perseus-Pisces filament treated by ELT, gives MOND M/L estimates of order 10 s.u., compared with the Newtonian value of about 450, which ELT find. In spite of the large uncertainties still besetting the analysis, this instance of MOND application is of particular interest because: 1. Objects of this geometry have not been dealt with before. 2. It pertains to large-scale structure. 3. The typical accelerations involved are the lowest so far encountered in a semi-virialized system.Comment: 12 page

    Galaxy groups and the modified dynamics

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    I estimate Modified-Dynamics (MOND), median M/L values for recently published catalogues of galaxy groups. While the median, Newtonian M/L values quoted for these catalogues are 110-200 solar units, the corresponding values for MOND are less than 10 solar units.Comment: 5 pages, Latex, to appear in Astrophys. J. Let

    Cosmological fluctuation growth in bimetric MOND

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    I look at the growth of weak density inhomogeneities of nonrelativistic matter, in bimetric-MOND (BIMOND) cosmology. I concentrate on matter-twin-matter-symmetric versions of BIMOND, and assume that, on average, the universe is symmetrically populated in the two sectors. MOND effects are absent in an exactly symmetric universe, apart from the appearance of a cosmological constant, Lambda~(a0/c)^2. MOND effects-local and cosmological-do enter when density inhomogeneities that differ in the two sectors appear and develop. MOND later takes its standard form in systems that are islands dominated by pure matter. I derive the nonrelativistic equations governing small-scale fluctuation growth. The equations split into two uncoupled systems, one for the sum, the other for the difference, of the fluctuations in the two sectors. The former is governed strictly by Newtonian dynamics. The latter is governed by MOND dynamics, which entails stronger gravity, and nonlinearity even for the smallest of perturbations. These cause the difference to grow faster than the sum, conducing to matter-twin-matter segregation. The nonlinearity also causes interaction between nested perturbations on different scales. Because matter and twin matter (TM) repel each other in the MOND regime, matter inhomogeneities grow not only by their own self gravity, but also through shepherding by flanking TM overdensitie. The relative importance of gravity and pressure in the MOND system depends also on the strength of the perturbation. The development of structure in the universe, in either sector, thus depends crucially on two initial fluctuation spectra: that of matter alone and that of the matter-TM difference. I also discuss the back reaction on cosmology of BIMOND effects that appear as "phantom matter" resulting from inhomogeneity differences between the two sectors.Comment: 14 pages. Some clarifications added. Version published in Phys. Rev.

    Non-linear conformally invariant generalization of the Poisson equation to D>2 dimensions

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    I propound a non-linear generalization of the Poisson equation describing a "medium" in D dimensions with a "dielectric constant" proportional to the field strength to the power D-2. It is the only conformally invariant scalar theory that is second order, and in which the scalar phiphi couples to the sources ρ\rho via a ϕρ\phi\rho contact term. The symmetry is used to generate solutions for the field for some non-trivial configurations (e.g. for two oppositely charged points). Systems comprising N point charges afford further application of the symmetry. For these I derive e.g. exact expressions for the following quantities: the general two-point-charge force; the energy function and the forces in any three-body configuration with zero total charge; the few-body force for some special configurations; the virial theorem for an arbitrary, bound, many-particle system relating the time-average kinetic energy to the particle charges. Possible connections with an underlying conformal quantum field theory are mentioned.Comment: Revtex, 16 pages. To be published in Phys. Rev.

    A New interpretation of MOND based on Mach principle and an Unruh like effect

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    A new interpretation is introduced for MOND based on the Sciama's interpretation of Mach principle and an Unruh like effect, in the context of a generalized equivalence principle. It is argued that in a locally accelerated frame with acceleration aa the appearance of a Rindler horizon may give rise to a constant acceleration a0a_0 as the local properties of cosmological horizon or Hubble length. The total gravitational acceleration inside this frame becomes the combination of aa with a0a_0. For aa0a\gg a_0, the conventional gravitational mass mgm_g interacts with the dominant acceleration as mgam_g a and application of Sciama's interpretation leads to the standard Newtonian dynamics. For aa0a\ll a_0, however, a reduced gravitational mass mˉg\bar{m}_g interacts with the dominant acceleration as mˉga0\bar{m}_g a_0 and the application of Sciama's interpretation on this reduced gravitational mass leads to MOND. This introduces a third proposal for MOND: {\it The modification of gravitational mass}.Comment: 11 pages, throughout revisio

    Gravitational Cherenkov losses in MOND theories

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    Survival of high-energy cosmic rays (HECRs) against gravitational Cherenkov losses is shown not to cast strong constraints on MOND theories that are compatible with general relativity (GR): theories that coincide with GR in the high-acceleration limit. The energy-loss rate, L, is shown to be many orders smaller than those derived in the literature for theories with no extra scale. The gravitational acceleration produced by a HECR in its vicinity is much higher than the MOND acceleration a0. So, modification to GR, which underlies L, enters only beyond the MOND radius of the particle, within which GR holds sway: r_M=sqrt(Gp/c a0). The spectral cutoff, which enters L quadratically, is thus 1/r_M, not the particle's, much larger, de Broglie wavenumber: k_{dB}= p/hbar. Thus, L is smaller than published rates, which use k_{dB}, by a factor (r_M k_{dB})^2~10^{39}(cp/3.10^{11}Gev)^3. With 1/r_M as cutoff, the distance a HECR can travel without major losses is q l_M, where l_M=c^2/a0 is the MOND length, and q is a dimensionless function of parameters of the problem. Since l_M is ~2 pi times the Hubble distance, survival of HECRs does not strongly constrain GR-compatible, MOND theories. Such theories also easily satisfy existing preferred-frame limits, inasmuch as these limits are gotten in high-acceleration systems. I exemplify the results with MOND adaptations of Einstein-Aether theories.Comment: Phys. Rev. Lett.; 4 pages; added some clarifications and reference

    Modelling the Pioneer anomaly as modified inertia

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    This paper proposes an explanation for the Pioneer anomaly: an unexplained Sunward acceleration of 8.74 +/- 1.33 x 10^-10 m s^-2 seen in the behaviour of the Pioneer probes. Two hypotheses are made: (1) Inertia is a reaction to Unruh radiation and (2) this reaction is weaker for low accelerations because some wavelengths in the Unruh spectrum do not fit within a limiting scale (twice the Hubble distance) and are disallowed: a process similar to the Casimir effect. When these ideas are used to model the Pioneer crafts' trajectories there is a slight reduction in their inertial mass, causing an anomalous Sunward acceleration of 6.9 +/- 3.5 x 10^-10 m s^-2 which agrees within error bars with the observed Pioneer anomaly beyond 10 AU from the Sun. This new scheme is appealingly simple and does not require adjustable parameters. However, it also predicts an anomaly within 10 AU of the Sun, which has not been observed. Various observational tests for the idea are proposed.Comment: 15 pages, 2 bw figures, accepted by MNRAS 19th December 200
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