1,690 research outputs found

    Measuring the CP-violating phase by a long base-line neutrino experiment with Hyper-Kamiokande

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    We study the sensitivity of a long-base-line (LBL) experiment with neutrino beams from the High Intensity Proton Accelerator (HIPA), that delivers 10^{21} POT per year, and a proposed 1Mt water-Cherenkov detector, Hyper-Kamiokande (HK) 295km away from the HIPA, to the CP phase (delta_{M N S}) of the three-flavor lepton mixing matrix. We examine a combination of the nu_mu narrow-band beam (NBB) at two different energies, vev{p_pi}=2, 3GeV, and the bar{nu}_mu NBB at vev{p_pi}=2GeV. By allocating one year each for the two nu_mu beams and four years for the bar{nu}_mu beam, we can efficiently measure the nu_mu to nu_e and bar{nu}_mu to bar{nu}_e transition probabilities, as well as the nu_mu and bar{nu}_mu survival probabilities. CP violation in the lepton sector can be established at 4sigma (3sigma) level if the MSW large-mixing-angle scenario of the solar-neutrino deficit is realized, |\dmns| or |delta{M N S}-180^{circ}| > 30^{circ}, and if 4|U_{e3}|^2 (1-|U_{e3}|^2) equiv sin^2 2 theta_{CHOOZ} > 0.03 (0.01). The phase delta_{M N S} is more difficult to constrain by this experiment if there is little CP violation, delta_{M N S} sim 0^{circ} or 180^{circ}, which can be distinguished at 1sigma level if sin^2 2 theta_{CHOOZ} >~ 0.01.Comment: 16 pages, 4 figures, 2 tables, we add 1 figure, some refrences, and minor corrections. PLB published versio

    Precise Formulation of Neutrino Oscillation in the Earth

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    We give a perturbation theory of neutrino oscillation in the Earth. The perturbation theory is valid for neutrinos with energy E \gsim 0.5 GeV. It is formulated using trajectory dependent average potential. Non-adiabatic contributions are included as the first order effects in the perturbation theory. We analyze neutrino oscillation with standard matter effect and with non-standard matter effect. In a three flavor analysis we show that the perturbation theory gives a precise description of neutrino conversion in the Earth. Effect of the Earth matter is substantially simplified in this formulation.Comment: References added, 21 pages, 10 figures, version to appear in PR

    Solar neutrinos and 1-3 leptonic mixing

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    Effects of the 1-3 leptonic mixing on the solar neutrino observables are studied and the signatures of non-zero θ13\theta_{13} are identified. For this we have re-derived the formula for 3ν3\nu-survival probability including all relevant corrections and constructed the iso-contours of observables in the sin2θ12sin2θ13\sin^2 \theta_{12} - \sin^2 \theta_{13} plane. Analysis of the solar neutrino data gives sin2θ13=0.0070.007+0.080\sin^2\theta_{13} = 0.007^{+ 0.080}_{-0.007} (90% C.L.) for Δm2=8105\Delta m^2 = 8 \cdot 10^{-5} eV2^2. The combination of the ratio CC/NC at SNO and gallium production rate selects sin2θ13=0.017±0.026\sin^2\theta_{13} = 0.017 \pm 0.026 (1σ1\sigma). The global fit of all oscillation data leads to zero best value of sin2θ13\sin^2 \theta_{13}. The sensitivity (1σ1\sigma error) of future solar neutrino studies to sin2θ13\sin^2 \theta_{13} can be improved down to 0.01 - 0.02 by precise measurements of the pp-neutrino flux and the CC/NC ratio as well as spectrum distortion at high (E>4E > 4 MeV) energies. Combination of experimental results sensitive to the low and high energy parts of the solar neutrino spectrum resolves the degeneracy of angles θ13\theta_{13} and θ12\theta_{12}. Comparison of sin2θ13\sin^2 \theta_{13} as well as sin2θ12\sin^2 \theta_{12} measured in the solar neutrinos and in the reactor/accelerator experiments may reveal new effects which can not be seen otherwise.Comment: 36 pages, latex, 10 figures. Analysis and figures are updated with new (salt phase II) SNO results, several clarifications added, typos correcte

    Testing large mixing MSW solutions of the solar neutrino problem through Earth regeneration effects

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    Large mixing MSW solutions to the solar neutrino problem appear to be currently favored by the data. We discuss the possibility of discriminating them by means of present and future experiments. In particular, we show that the study of energy and time dependence of the Earth regeneration effect can be useful in this respect.Comment: Talk given at Europhysics Neutrino Oscillation Workshop (NOW 2000), Conca Specchiulla, Otranto, Lecce, Italy, 9-16 Sep. 200

    Density profiles of supernova matter and determination of neutrino parameters

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    The flavor conversion of supernova neutrinos can lead to observable signatures related to the unknown neutrino parameters. As one of the determinants in dictating the efficiency of resonant flavor conversion, the local density profile near the MSW resonance in a supernova environment is, however, not so well understood. In this analysis, variable power-law functions are adopted to represent the independent local density profiles near the locations of resonance. It is shown that the uncertain matter density profile in a supernova, the possible neutrino mass hierarchies, and the undetermined 1-3 mixing angle would result in six distinct scenarios in terms of the survival probabilities of νe\nu_{e} and νeˉ\bar{\nu_{e}}. The feasibility of probing the undetermined neutrino mass hierarchy and the 1-3 mixing angle with the supernova neutrinos is then examined using several proposed experimental observables. Given the incomplete knowledge of the supernova matter profile, the analysis is further expanded to incorporate the Earth matter effect. The possible impact due to the choice of models, which differ in the average energy and in the luminosity of neutrinos, is also addressed in the analysis.Comment: 27 pages, 10 figures. text and figures revised, references added, to appear in Phys. Rev.

    The neutrino ground state in a neutron star

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    We address a recent claim that the stability of neutron stars implies a lower bound on the mass of the neutrino. We argue that the result obtained by some previous authors is due to an improper summation of an infrared-sensitive series and that a non-perturbative "resummation" of the series yields a finite and well-behaved result. The stability of neutron stars thus gives no lower bound on the mass of the neutrino.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, Latex (uses espcrc2.sty); contribution to the proceedings of Neutrino 98, Takayama, Japan, 4-9 June, 199

    Bilarge neutrino mixing from supersymmetry with high-scale nonrenormalizable interactions

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    We suggest a supersymmetric (SUSY) explanation of neutrino masses and mixing, where nonrenormalizable interactions in the hidden sector generate lepton number violating Majorana mass terms for both right-chiral sneutrinos and neutrinos. It is found necessary to start with a superpotential including an array of gauge singlet chiral superfields. This leads to nondiagonal ΔL=2\Delta L = 2 mass terms and almost diagonal SUSY breaking AA-terms. As a result, the observed pattern of bilarge mixing can be naturally explained by the simultaneous existence of the seesaw mechanism and radiatively induced masses. Allowed ranges of parameters in the gauge singlet sector are delineated, corresponding to each of the cases of normal hierarchy, inverted hierarchy and degenerate neutrinos.Comment: 19 pages, 5 figures. Minor modifications are made in the title and the text, some new references are added. To appear in this form in Physical Review

    Random magnetic fields inducing solar neutrino spin-flavor precession in a three generation context

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    We study the effect of random magnetic fields in the spin-flavor precession of solar neutrinos in a three generation context, when a non-vanishing transition magnetic moment is assumed. While this kind of precession is strongly constrained when the magnetic moment involves the first family, such constraints do not apply if we suppose a transition magnetic moment between the second and third families. In this scenario we can have a large non-electron anti-neutrino flux arriving on Earth, which can lead to some interesting phenomenological consequences, as, for instance, the suppression of day-night asymmetry. We have analyzed the high energy solar neutrino data and the KamLAND experiment to constrain the solar mixing angle, and solar mass difference, and we have found a larger shift of allowed values.Comment: 10 pages, 3 figure

    Solar neutrino spectrum, sterile neutrinos and additional radiation in the Universe

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    Recent results from the SNO, Super-Kamiokande and Borexino experiments do not show the expected upturn of the energy spectrum of events (the ratio RNobs/NSSMR \equiv N_{obs}/N_{SSM}) at low energies. At the same time, cosmological observations testify for possible existence of additional relativistic degrees of freedom in the early Universe: ΔNeff=12\Delta N_{eff} = 1 - 2. These facts strengthen the case of very light sterile neutrino, νs\nu_s, with Δm012(0.72)105\Delta m^2_{01} \sim (0.7 - 2) \cdot 10^{-5} eV2^2, which mixes weakly with the active neutrinos. The νs\nu_s mixing in the mass eigenstate ν1\nu_1 characterized by sin22α103\sin^2 2\alpha \sim 10^{-3} can explain an absence of the upturn. The mixing of νs\nu_s in the eigenstate ν3\nu_3 with sin2β0.1\sin^2 \beta \sim 0.1 leads to production of νs\nu_s via oscillations in the Universe and to additional contribution ΔNeff0.71\Delta N_{eff} \approx 0.7 - 1 before the big bang nucleosynthesis and later. Such a mixing can be tested in forthcoming experiments with the atmospheric neutrinos as well as in future accelerator long baseline experiments. It has substantial impact on conversion of the supernova neutrinos.Comment: 27 pages, LaTeX, 14 eps figures, 3 figures and additional considerations adde

    On in situ Determination of Earth Matter Density in Neutrino Factory

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    We point out that an accurate in situ determination of the earth matter density \rho is possible in neutrino factory by placing a detector at the magic baseline, L = \sqrt{2} \pi / G_{F} N_{e} where N_{e} denotes electron number density. The accuracy of matter density determination is excellent in a region of relatively large theta_{13} with fractional uncertainty \delta \rho / \rho of about 0.43%, 1.3%, and \lsim 3% at 1 sigma CL at sin^2 2theta_{13}=0.1, 10^{-2}, and 3 x 10^{-3}, respectively. At smaller theta_{13} the uncertainty depends upon the CP phase delta, but it remains small, 3%-7% in more than 3/4 of the entire region of delta at sin^2 2theta_{13} = 10^{-4}. The results would allow us to solve the problem of obscured CP violation due to the uncertainty of earth matter density in a wide range of theta_{13} and delta. It may provide a test for the geophysical model of the earth, or it may serve as a method for stringent test of the MSW theory of neutrino propagation in matter once an accurate geophysical estimation of the matter density is available.Comment: 21 pages, 4 figures, version to appear in PR
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