48 research outputs found

    An Adaptable and Unsupervised TinyML Anomaly Detection System for Extreme Industrial Environments

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    Industrial assets often feature multiple sensing devices to keep track of their status by monitoring certain physical parameters. These readings can be analyzed with machine learning (ML) tools to identify potential failures through anomaly detection, allowing operators to take appropriate corrective actions. Typically, these analyses are conducted on servers located in data centers or the cloud. However, this approach increases system complexity and is susceptible to failure in cases where connectivity is unavailable. Furthermore, this communication restriction limits the approach鈥檚 applicability in extreme industrial environments where operating conditions affect communication and access to the system. This paper proposes and evaluates an end-to-end adaptable and configurable anomaly detection system that uses the Internet of Things (IoT), edge computing, and Tiny-MLOps methodologies in an extreme industrial environment such as submersible pumps. The system runs on an IoT sensing Kit, based on an ESP32 microcontroller and MicroPython firmware, located near the data source. The processing pipeline on the sensing device collects data, trains an anomaly detection model, and alerts an external gateway in the event of an anomaly. The anomaly detection model uses the isolation forest algorithm, which can be trained on the microcontroller in just 1.2 to 6.4 s and detect an anomaly in less than 16 milliseconds with an ensemble of 50 trees and 80 KB of RAM. Additionally, the system employs blockchain technology to provide a transparent and irrefutable repository of anomalies

    Land use change in the geosystem coastal basin of the Boroa river (Chile) between 1994 and 2004

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    Se analizaron los principales cambios de uso del suelo en las unidades de paisaje (geosistemas) de la cuenca hidrogr谩fica del r铆o Boroa entre 1994 y 2004. Para ello se plante贸 la hip贸tesis de que los cambios en la estructura del paisaje han sido conducidos fundamentalmente por acci贸n antr贸pica generando importantes alteraciones en el paisaje ecol贸gico. Se utilizaron mapas categ贸ricos de uso/cobertura de suelo elaborados con material cartogr谩fico y fotograf铆as a茅reas con su posterior correcci贸n en terreno, informaci贸n que fue complementada con el an谩lisis geomorfol贸gico y de unidades ambientales de la cuenca. Se comprob贸 una fuerte variaci贸n en la superficie de plantaciones forestales (principalmente Eucalyptus spp.), con una tasa de incremento anual que vari贸 entre 3,2 y 28%, asociado principalmente a reconversi贸n de uso y ocupaci贸n de cordones monta帽osos metam贸rficos. A su vez, se constat贸 la expansi贸n de zonas de humedales en terrenos anegadizos de llanuras, todo lo cual ha reducido la superficie total con destino agr铆cola en 61%, transformando el paisaje en un periodo de s贸lo diez a帽os. Estos cambios se discuten sobre la base de una combinaci贸n de factores econ贸micos, legales y ambientales, concluyendo que el factor humano ha sido el principal responsable de la conducci贸n de los cambios de uso del suelo en la cuenca del r铆o Boroa.We analyzed the major changes in land use in the landscape units (geosystems) of Boroa river basin between 1994 and 2004. To do this, we hypothesized that changes in landscape structure have been driven primarily by human action, generating significant changes in the ecological landscape. Categorical maps of use/land cover made from aerial photographs, cartographic material and its subsequent correction in the field were used. This information was complemented by an analysis of the geomorphology and environmental units of the basin. Significant variation was found in the area of forest plantations (mainly Eucalyptus spp.) which varied between 3.2 and 28%, associated principally with the conversion of the use and occupation of metamorphic mountain chains. At the same time, the expansion in wetlands areas on waterlogged soils was found, all of which have reduced the total agricultural area in 61%, transforming the landscape into a period of only ten years. These changes are discussed on the basis of a combination of economic, legal and environmental, concluding that the human factor has been primarily responsible for driving changes in land use in the Boroa river basin.Fil: Pe帽a-Cort茅s, Fernando. Universidad Cat贸lica de Temuco. Facultad de Recursos Naturales. Escuela de Ciencias Ambientales. Laboratorio de Planificaci贸n TerritorialFil: Escalona-Ulloa, Miguel. Universidad Cat贸lica de Temuco. Facultad de Recursos Naturales. Escuela de Ciencias Ambientales. Laboratorio de Planificaci贸n TerritorialFil: Pincheira-Ulbrich, Jimmy. Universidad Cat贸lica de Temuco. Facultad de Recursos Naturales. Escuela de Ciencias Ambientales. Laboratorio de Planificaci贸n TerritorialFil: Rebolledo, Gonzalo. Universidad Cat贸lica de Temuco. Facultad de Recursos Naturales. Escuela de Ciencias Ambientales. Laboratorio de Planificaci贸n Territoria

    Morphology and dune dynamics in the coastal border of Araucania region in Chile : Background for conservation and territorial management

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    An evaluation was made of the dynamics of the dune systems of the coastal strip of the Araucan铆a region between 1994 and 2004, based on its morphological classification and degree of stabilization as evaluated from cartographic material, aerial photographs and investigation in the field. Eight fields of dunes were defined with a total surface area of 4,597 ha being stated a total expansion of 314 ha in the period; active dunes represented 35% of the total area, while semi-stabilized and stabilized dunes represented 31% and 15% respectively. The most common type of morphology was transverse dunes and the most frequent plant species were Pinus radiata and Ammophila arenaria. Finally, the localization and the determination of the stabilization grades and dunaries shapes allow to recognize the action of the natural and anthropic factors, these integrally require to be tackle as a frame for an integrated management of this coastal zone.Se evalu贸 la din谩mica de los campos dunarios del borde costero de La Araucan铆a entre los a帽os 1994 y 2004, usando para ello la clasificaci贸n morfol贸gica y grado de estabilizaci贸n, evaluado a partir de material cartogr谩fico, fotograf铆as a茅reas y reconocimiento en terreno. Se delimitaron 8 campos de dunas distribuidos en una superficie de 4.597 ha, constat谩ndose una expansi贸n total de 314 ha en el periodo; las dunas activas representaron un 35% de esta superficie, mientras que las dunas semiestabilizadas y estabilizadas representaron un 31 y 15% respectivamente. La morfolog铆a m谩s frecuente fue el tipo de duna transversal y las especies vegetales con mayor frecuencia fueron Pinus radiata y Ammophila arenaria. Finalmente, la localizaci贸n y la determinaci贸n de los grados de estabilizaci贸n y formas dunarias permiten reconocer la acci贸n de factores naturales y antr贸picos, los que requieren ser abordados integralmente como base para una gesti贸n integrada de esta zona costera

    Microplastics and Their Effect in Horticultural Crops: Food Safety and Plant Stress

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    The presence of micro and nanoplastics in the food chain constitutes an emergent multifactorial food safety and physiological stress problem, which must be approached with a strategic perspective since it affects public health when consuming products that have this pollutant, such as fish and crustaceans, fruits, and vegetables. In this review, the authors present the results by scientists from different disciplines who are dedicated to discovering their chemical constitution and origin, the contents of these microparticles in edible plants, the contamination of water-irrigated soils, the mechanisms that concentrate microplastics in these soils, methods to determine them, contamination of freshwater sources of cities, and the negative effect of nano and microplastics on various food products and their detrimental impact on the environment. Recent findings of plant uptake mechanisms complement this, but more research is needed

    Benchmarking Constrained IoT Devices in Blockchain-Based Agri-Food Traceability Applications

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    The adoption of blockchain technology combined with the Internet of Things in agri-food traceability scenarios is gaining momentum in terms of research and development. The intrinsic capability of blockchain to provide immutable and tamper-proof records is the perfect match for IoT systems comprising small sensing devices that can autonomously produce information across the entire process. However, there has been little discussion on the impact that blockchain has on the constrained sensing IoT devices in terms of their limited resources. These devices are the core of modern IoT systems providing the sensing layer for the entire application. In this paper, we focus on assessing the impact that a blockchain traceability system may have on such constrained sensing devices. To this end, we benchmark six IoT hardware platforms in terms of space and memory usage, processing time, and energy consumption as elements of a trustless event-based traceability application over two blockchain networks, namely Ethereum, as an example of permissionless network, and Hyperledger Sawtooth, as a permissioned counterpart. Our results and analysis provide an empirical reference for the study and development of blockchain-based traceability systems using constrained sensing IoT devices

    Exploiting Cost-Effective IoT Devices for Trustless Agri-Food Supply Chain Management: A Practical Case Study

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    The exponential rise in the adoption of diverse Internet of Things (IoT) devices has reached the Agriculture and Food (Agri-Food) supply chains. Small and cost-effective sensing IoT devices are fostering substantial research and innovation toward developing reliable, auditable, and transparent traceability systems. Current IoT-based traceability and provenance systems for Agri-Food supply chains are built on top of centralized infrastructures, introducing security and privacy issues such as data integrity, tampering, and single points of failure. In recent years, blockchain technology is attracting the interest of the IoT as a decentralized platform for a trusted record of information, realizing decentralized trustless systems. The inherent properties of this digital technology provide fault-tolerance, immutability, transparency, and full traceability of the stored transaction records. However, there has been little discussion on the role of cost-effective IoT devices in these blockchain-based systems. In this chapter, we propose an architecture for a blockchain-based traceability system for Agri-Food supply chain management. Our architecture seamlessly integrates cost-effective IoT devices producing and consuming digital data along the process. To effectively assess our proposal, we first defined a classical use case within the given vertical domain, namely from-farm-to-fork. Then, we deploy a full-fledged showcase using off-the-shelf constrained sensing devices and two different blockchain implementations. From a device perspective, we measure the overhead that our architecture introduces in the system in terms of memory and program space footprint, processing time, and power consumption. Our results show that cost-effective devices, with an internal clock running at less than 100 MHz, can support our proposed solution in both Ethereum and Hyperledger Sawtooth blockchain networks

    Rationale and Practical Assessment of a Fully Distributed Blockchain-based Marketplace of Fog/Edge Computing Resources

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    none3On modern electronic marketplaces, the buyers and sellers (i.e., the users) trade products over software platforms provided by trusted third-party entities. In exchange for better user experience, the users allow these intermediaries to set their own arbitrary rules, which may influence reciprocal interactions and also favor some products over others. Recently, researchers have shown an increased interest in blockchain technology as a possible solution for creating decentralized marketplaces, thus avoiding the need for intermediaries. However, due to the young age of this technology, the majority of architectures proposed in the literature still rely on other types of centralized services, mainly to guarantee better user experiences. Although these schemes offer several benefits over traditional centralized architectures, they introduce other issues, such as single points of failure for the whole system. This paper presents a software architecture and the implementation of a fully decentralized marketplace solely relying on a public blockchain network. To test its effectiveness, we implemented a full-fledged marketplace of Fog/Edge computing resources, evaluating several design decisions and trade-offs in terms of monetary cost versus performance. Our experiments show that the current capabilities of blockchain technology may support such fully decentralized marketplaces, providing seamless user experiences.nonePincheira, Miguel; Vecchio, Massimo; Giaffreda, RaffaelePincheira, Miguel; Vecchio, Massimo; Giaffreda, Raffael

    SmartTwin: A Blockchain-Based Software Framework for Digital Twins Using IoT

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    A Digital Twin provides a virtual representation of a physical object, complementing theoretical models with real-world data provided by the Internet of Things. Currently, most cloud-based IoT platforms provide device virtualization with different levels of detail and complexity. Nonetheless, this approach has inherited the disadvantages and risks of cloud computing, such as centralizing and isolating the information. Thus, a blockchain-based Digital Twin could provide a unique combination of properties to address these challenges while ensuring availability, integrity, and confidentiality. Current research on blockchain-based Digital Twin has focused on the data-sharing functionalities. However, the role of the IoT sensors as secure, trustworthy data sources is still an issue that needs to be addressed in the Digital Twin domain. In this work, we propose SmartTwin as a software framework to develop blockchain-based Digital Twins. The architecture鈥檚 key is considering IoT as direct actors on the blockchain system, taking advantage of the cryptographic capabilities of Blockchain to create a root-of-trust for the data feeding the Digital Twin. In addition, our proposal uses smart contracts as a software platform to define complex business logic. Finally, to illustrate the benefits of SmartTwin, we describe two use cases where the framework was used

    Rationale and Practical Assessment of a Fully Distributed Blockchain-based Marketplace of Fog/Edge Computing Resources

    No full text
    On modern electronic marketplaces, the buyers and sellers (i.e., the users) trade products over software platforms provided by trusted third-party entities. In exchange for better user experience, the users allow these intermediaries to set their own arbitrary rules, which may influence reciprocal interactions and also favor some products over others. Recently, researchers have shown an increased interest in blockchain technology as a possible solution for creating decentralized marketplaces, thus avoiding the need for intermediaries. However, due to the young age of this technology, the majority of architectures proposed in the literature still rely on other types of centralized services, mainly to guarantee better user experiences. Although these schemes offer several benefits over traditional centralized architectures, they introduce other issues, such as single points of failure for the whole system. This paper presents a software architecture and the implementation of a fully decentralized marketplace solely relying on a public blockchain network. To test its effectiveness, we implemented a full-fledged marketplace of Fog/Edge computing resources, evaluating several design decisions and trade-offs in terms of monetary cost versus performance. Our experiments show that the current capabilities of blockchain technology may support such fully decentralized marketplaces, providing seamless user experiences
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