4,203 research outputs found

    Care and compassion at the end of life

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    Aim: To examine the provision of the ‘end of life care strategy’ and the perception of provision by patients and carers. Introduction: In determining what constitutes excellence in care at the end of life, one must firstly acknowledge ‘what care and compassion is’. Following this it should be established what one should expect as a minimum standard of care. The end of life care strategy was initiated by the Department of Health in 2008. This guidance was intended to drive forward end of life care provision where patients were seen as the priority and encouraged to engage in all decision making at each point in their journey. Standards suggested by NICE (2011) further support patient empowerment and inclusivity in care planning. Method: A literature search was conducted in order to determine whether there has been a change in provision and to identify whether patients and their carers perceive an excellence in the care that has been delivered. Results: The literature is limited but the underlying issues of pre-end of life care strategy (2008) remain apparent. Patients and their carers continue to lack the autonomy they deserve and decisions are made about them rather than by them. Owing to the lack of direction which should come from the patient, care may be fragmented with numerous members of a multidisciplinary team being involved. Conclusion: Patient involvement is paramount. Early discussions relating to choices at the end of life need to be achieved in a timely manner. This should ensure that the patient and carer experience a high standard of excellent care which has been planned with inclusivity in min

    Optical coherence tomography:age estimation of <i>Calliphora vicina</i> pupae <i>in vivo</i>?

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    Necrophagous blowfly pupae are valuable contributors to the estimation of post-mortem interval, should an accurate age estimate be obtained. At present, this is reliant on a combination of rearing and destructive methods conducted on preserved samples, including morphological observation and gene expression analyses. This study demonstrates the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a tool for in vivo morphological observation and pupal age estimation. Using a Michelson OCT microscope, alive and preserved four and ten-day old Calliphora vicina pupae were scanned in different orientations. Two and three-dimensional images were created. Morphological characteristics such as the brain, mouthparts and legs were identifiable in both living and preserved samples, with distinct differences noted between the two ages. Absorption of light by the puparium results in a vertical resolution of 1-2 mm, preventing observation of deeper tissues. The use of contrast agents or a longer wavelength laser would improve the images obtainable. At present, the data suggests OCT provides a primary view of external and internal morphology, which can be used to distinguish younger and older pupae for further analysis of age and PMI estimation

    It’s all a Matter of “Choice”. Understanding society’s expectations of older adult ICT use from a birth cohort\ud perspective

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    Little research exists that examines older adults and their Information and Communication Technology (ICT) use or society’s expectations of their use. Using an intensive interpretive interactionism case study methodology, this paper examines how older adults ages 65-75 (from the Lucky Few birth cohort) view their own use and how other birth cohorts view the Lucky Few's ICT use

    Chata Sia “I am Choctaw”. Using Images as a Methodology for Cultural and Technological Discourse

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    Unlike positivist quantitative designs, many qualitative researchers tend to dive right into data collection without benefit of an exploratory study or other pilot study. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to share an image-based methodology adapted from a community strategic planning process and applied to an exploratory study of one native American tribes reaction to cultural images and\ud ICT’s, and (2) to share the many benefits of a pilot study in advance of a larger qualitative research study, including opportunities for discourse around ICT’s in relation to local culture

    Posttranslational modifications of proteins in the pathobiology of medically relevant fungi

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    Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Targeted therapy for breast cancer prevention.

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    With a better understanding of the etiology of breast cancer, molecularly targeted drugs have been developed and are being testing for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Targeted drugs that inhibit the estrogen receptor (ER) or estrogen-activated pathways include the selective ER modulators (tamoxifen, raloxifene, and lasofoxifene) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) (anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane) have been tested in preclinical and clinical studies. Tamoxifen and raloxifene have been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer and promising results of AIs in breast cancer trials, suggest that AIs might be even more effective in the prevention of ER-positive breast cancer. However, these agents only prevent ER-positive breast cancer. Therefore, current research is focused on identifying preventive therapies for other forms of breast cancer such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC, breast cancer that does express ER, progesterone receptor, or HER2). HER2-positive breast cancers are currently treated with anti-HER2 therapies including trastuzumab and lapatinib, and preclinical and clinical studies are now being conducted to test these drugs for the prevention of HER2-positive breast cancers. Several promising agents currently being tested in cancer prevention trials for the prevention of TNBC include poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, vitamin D, and rexinoids, both of which activate nuclear hormone receptors (the vitamin D and retinoid X receptors). This review discusses currently used breast cancer preventive drugs, and describes the progress of research striving to identify and develop more effective preventive agents for all forms of breast cancer