478 research outputs found

    Dependability Assessment of NAND Flash-memory for Mission-critical Applications

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    It is a matter of fact that NAND flash memory devices are well established in consumer market. However, it is not true that the same architectures adopted in the consumer market are suitable for mission critical applications like space. In fact, USB flash drives, digital cameras, MP3 players are usually adopted to store "less significant" data which are not changing frequently (e.g., MP3s, pictures, etc.). Therefore, in spite of NAND flash's drawbacks, a modest complexity is usually needed in the logic of commercial flash drives. On the other hand, mission critical applications have different reliability requirements from commercial scenarios. Moreover, they are usually playing in a hostile environment (e.g., the space) which contributes to worsen all the issues. We aim at providing practical valuable guidelines, comparisons and tradeoffs among the huge number of dimensions of fault tolerant methodologies for NAND flash applied to critical environments. We hope that such guidelines will be useful for our ongoing research and for all the interested reader

    EDACs and test integration strategies for NAND flash memories

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    Mission-critical applications usually presents several critical issues: the required level of dependability of the whole mission always implies to address different and contrasting dimensions and to evaluate the tradeoffs among them. A mass-memory device is always needed in all mission-critical applications: NAND flash-memories could be used for this goal. Error Detection And Correction (EDAC) techniques are needed to improve dependability of flash-memory devices. However also testing strategies need to be explored in order to provide highly dependable systems. Integrating these two main aspects results in providing a fault-tolerant mass-memory device, but no systematic approach has so far been proposed to consider them as a whole. As a consequence a novel strategy integrating a particular code-based design environment with newly selected testing strategies is presented in this pape

    Dependability Assessment of NAND Flash-memory for Mission-critical Applications

    Get PDF
    It is a matter of fact that NAND flash memory devices are well established in consumer market. However, it is not true that the same architectures adopted in the consumer market are suitable for mission critical applications like space. In fact, USB flash drives, digital cameras, MP3 players are usually adopted to store "less significant" data which are not changing frequently (e.g., MP3s, pictures, etc.). Therefore, in spite of NAND flash’s drawbacks, a modest complexity is usually needed in the logic of commercial flash drives. On the other hand, mission critical applications have different reliability requirements from commercial scenarios. Moreover, they are usually playing in a hostile environment (e.g., the space) which contributes to worsen all the issues. We aim at providing practical valuable guidelines, comparisons and tradeoffs among the huge number of dimensions of fault tolerant methodologies for NAND flash applied to critical environments. We hope that such guidelines will be useful for our ongoing research and for all the interested readers

    FLARE: A design environment for FLASH-based space applications

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    Designing a mass-memory device (i.e., a solid-state recorder) is one of the typical issues of mission-critical space system applications. Flash-memories could be used for this goal: a huge number of parameters and trade-offs need to be explored. Flash-memories are nonvolatile, shock-resistant and power-economic, but in turn have different drawback: e.g., their cost is higher than normal hard disk and the number of erasure cycles is bounded. Moreover space environment presents various issues especially because of radiations: different and quite often contrasting dimensions need to be explored during the design of a flash-memory based solid-state recorder. No systematic approach has so far been proposed to consider them all as a whole: as a consequence a novel design environment currently under development is aimed at supporting the design of flash-based mass-memory device for space application

    Flash-memories in Space Applications: Trends and Challenges

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    Nowadays space applications are provided with a processing power absolutely overcoming the one available just a few years ago. Typical mission-critical space system applications include also the issue of solid-state recorder(s). Flash-memories are nonvolatile, shock-resistant and power-economic, but in turn have different drawbacks. A solid-state recorder for space applications should satisfy many different constraints especially because of the issues related to radiations: proper countermeasures are needed, together with EDAC and testing techniques in order to improve the dependability of the whole system. Different and quite often contrasting dimensions need to be explored during the design of a flash-memory based solid- state recorder. In particular, we shall explore the most important flash-memory design dimensions and trade-offs to tackle during the design of flash-based hard disks for space application

    Finite element model set-up of colorectal tissue for analyzing surgical scenarios

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    Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has gained an extensive application in the medical field, such as soft tissues simulations. In particular, colorectal simulations can be used to understand the interaction with the surrounding tissues, or with instruments used in surgical procedures. Although several works have been introduced considering small displacements, as a result of the forces exerted on adjacent tissues, FEA applied to colorectal surgical scenarios is still a challenge. Therefore, this work aims to provide a sensitivity analysis on three geometric models, taking in mind different bioengineering tasks. In this way, a set of simulations has been performed using three mechanical models named Linear Elastic, Hyper-Elastic with a Mooney-Rivlin material model, and Hyper-Elastic with a YEOH material model

    Exploring Design Dimensions in Flash-based Mass-memory Devices

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    Mission-critical space system applications present several issues: a typical one is the design of a mass-memory device (i.e., a solid- state recorder). This goal could be accomplished by using flash- memories: the exploration of a huge number of parameters and trade-offs is needed. On the one hand flash-memories are nonvolatile, shock-resistant and power-economic, but on the other hand their cost is higher than normal hard disk, the number of erasure cycles is bounded and other different drawbacks have to be considered. In addition space environment presents various issues especially because of radiations: the design of a flash- memory based solid-state recorder implies the exploration of different and quite often contrasting dimensions. No systematic approach has so far been proposed to consider them all as a whole: as a consequence the design of flash-based mass-memory device for space applications is intended to be supported by a novel design environment currently under development and refinemen

    Design Issues and Challenges of File Systems for Flash Memories

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    This chapter discusses how to properly address the issues of using NAND flash memories as mass-memory devices from the native file system standpoint. We hope that the ideas and the solutions proposed in this chapter will be a valuable starting point for designers of NAND flash-based mass-memory devices

    Digital design of medical replicas via desktop systems: shape evaluation of colon parts

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    In this paper, we aim at providing results concerning the application of desktop systems for rapid prototyping of medical replicas that involve complex shapes, as, for example, folds of a colon. Medical replicas may assist preoperative planning or tutoring in surgery to better understand the interaction among pathology and organs. Major goals of the paper concern with guiding the digital design workflow of the replicas and understanding their final performance, according to the requirements asked by the medics (shape accuracy, capability of seeing both inner and outer details, and support and possible interfacing with other organs). In particular, after the analysis of these requirements, we apply digital design for colon replicas, adopting two desktop systems. ,e experimental results confirm that the proposed preprocessing strategy is able to conduct to the manufacturing of colon replicas divided in self-supporting segments, minimizing the supports during printing. ,is allows also to reach an acceptable level of final quality, according to the request of having a 3D presurgery overview of the problems. ,ese replicas are compared through reverse engineering acquisitions made by a structured-light system, to assess the achieved shape and dimensional accuracy. Final results demonstrate that low-cost desktop systems, coupled with proper strategy of preprocessing, may have shape deviation in the range of ±1 mm, good for physical manipulations during medical diagnosis and explanation
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