1,070 research outputs found

    Lattices of hydrodynamically interacting flapping swimmers

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    Fish schools and bird flocks exhibit complex collective dynamics whose self-organization principles are largely unknown. The influence of hydrodynamics on such collectives has been relatively unexplored theoretically, in part due to the difficulty in modeling the temporally long-lived hydrodynamic interactions between many dynamic bodies. We address this through a novel discrete-time dynamical system (iterated map) that describes the hydrodynamic interactions between flapping swimmers arranged in one- and two-dimensional lattice formations. Our 1D results exhibit good agreement with previously published experimental data, in particular predicting the bistability of schooling states and new instabilities that can be probed in experimental settings. For 2D lattices, we determine the formations for which swimmers optimally benefit from hydrodynamic interactions. We thus obtain the following hierarchy: while a side-by-side single-row "phalanx" formation offers a small improvement over a solitary swimmer, 1D in-line and 2D rectangular lattice formations exhibit substantial improvements, with the 2D diamond lattice offering the largest hydrodynamic benefit. Generally, our self-consistent modeling framework may be broadly applicable to active systems in which the collective dynamics is primarily driven by a fluid-mediated memory

    Ready or Not? Protecting the Public's Health in the Age of Bioterrorism, 2004

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    Examines ten key indicators to evaluate state preparedness to respond to bioterrorist attacks and other public health emergencies. Evaluates the federal government's role and performance, and offers recommendations for improving readiness

    How crosslink numbers shape the large-scale physics of cytoskeletal materials

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    Cytoskeletal networks are the main actuators of cellular mechanics, and a foundational example for active matter physics. In cytoskeletal networks, motion is generated on small scales by filaments that push and pull on each other via molecular-scale motors. These local actuations give rise to large scale stresses and motion. To understand how microscopic processes can give rise to self-organized behavior on larger scales it is important to consider what mechanisms mediate long-ranged mechanical interactions in the systems. Two scenarios have been considered in the recent literature. The first are systems which are relatively sparse, in which most of the large scale momentum transfer is mediated by the solvent in which cytoskeletal filaments are suspended. The second, are systems in which filaments are coupled via crosslink molecules throughout. Here, we review the differences and commonalities between the physics of these two regimes. We also survey the literature for the numbers that allow us to place a material within either of these two classes

    Books Received

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