15 research outputs found

    Bacterial community composition analysis between samples with high (<i>n</i>=13) and low (<i>n</i>=13) FP activity.

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    <p>Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) plots of un-weighted and weighted UniFrac distances for samples with high (blue circles) and low (yellow squares) FP activity are shown. Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) demonstrated a significant separation in the composition of fecal microbiotas between high and low FP activity samples using both un-weighted (<i>p</i>=0.001) and weighted (<i>p</i>=0.003) UniFrac distances. The R statistic (where R=1 and R=0 signifies differences and no differences between groups, respectively) is higher in the un-weighted analysis suggesting the separation between microbiotas is a result of both high and low abundances bacterial species.</p

    Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) network analysis of bacterial communities from samples with high and low fecal protease (FP) activity.

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    <p>Nodes represent high FP activity samples (<i>n</i>=13, blue circles), low FP activity samples (<i>n</i>=13, yellow circles) samples, and OTUs (white circles). Edges (lines) connecting samples with high FP activity nodes (blue edges) or low FP activity nodes (yellow edges) to OTUs indicate whether a given OTU was found in that sample. The clustering of blue and yellow nodes and edges indicates that samples with high FP activity share numerous OTUs in common, and segregate from the shared OTUs between low FP activity samples. </p

    Correlation of <i>Faecalibacterium prausnitzii</i> with FP activity.

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    <p><i>F. prausnitzii</i> exhibits a significant (<i>p</i>=0.01) negative correlation with FP activity. Blue and yellow circles indicate high and low FP activity samples used in previous analyses, respectively. </p

    Abundances of Family level taxa in samples with high (<i>n</i>=13) and low (<i>n</i>=13) FP activity.

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    <p>The composition and abundances of bacterial families differ between the microbiotas of fecal samples exhibiting high and low FP activity. </p

    Microbial richness of samples with high (<i>n</i>=13, blue) and low (<i>n</i>=13, yellow) FP activity.

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    <p>Both the number of observed bacterial species (based on species-level OTUs) and Shannon index of diversity are significantly lower in fecal samples with high compared to low protease activity (<i>p</i>=0.002). Error bars represent the standard error. </p

    Migration of hNSE+fibers toward the contralateral side of non-infarct region.

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    <p>Needle tract with hNSE+stain was found in the cortex. Additionally, small amounts of hNSE+fibers crossed the <i>cc contralaterally (inset).</i> Scale bar = 1.0 mm [Iv; lateral ventricle, Str: striatum, ctx: cortex, <i>cc</i>: corpus callosum].</p

    A representative image of hNSE staining in the striatum.

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    <p>Human graft cells were densely confined to the striatum (arrow) with small amounts of hNSE+fibers that extended dorsally and ventrally from the striatum (arrowheads). Scale bar = 0.5 mm [Iv; lateral ventricle, Str: striatum].</p

    NSI-566RSC cell grafts attenuate stroke-induced neurologic impairments.

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    <p>Neurological function was assessed using a battery of neurological tests (<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0091408#pone-0091408-g002" target="_blank">Figure 2</a>). All animals displayed normal neurological function at Baseline (i.e., prior to stroke). At day 7 post-stroke, all animals exhibited significant impairment in neurological function, indicating that all animals received successful stroke. At 14 days post-stroke onwards, dose-dependent and timing-dependent effects of the treatment were recognized, in that the improvement in neurological performance was in the order of high dose to zero dose as follows: 20,000 cells/µl (D) >10,000 cells/µl (C) >5,000 cells/µl (B)>vehicle infusion only (A). In addition, over time there was a trend of better improvement, with the most significant improvement seen at 56 days post-stroke. <b>*</b>significant <0.05 vs. other treatment groups within time point; <b><sup>#</sup></b>significant <0.05 vs. other time points.</p

    NSI-566RSC cell grafts ameliorate stroke-induced motor deficits.

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    <p>Motor performance was measured by EBST (<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0091408#pone-0091408-g001" target="_blank">Figure 1</a>). All animals displayed normal motor behavior at Baseline (i.e., prior to stroke). At day 7 post-stroke, all animals exhibited 100% biased swing behaviors, indicating that all animals received successful stroke. At 14 days post-stroke onwards, dose-dependent and timing-dependent effects of the treatment were recognized, in that the improvement in behavioral performance was in the order of high dose to zero dose as follows: 20,000 cells/µl (D) >10,000 cells/µl (C) >5,000 cells/µl (B)>vehicle infusion only (A). In addition, over time there was a trend of better improvement, with the most significant improvement seen at 56 days post-stroke. *significant <0.05 vs. other treatment groups within time point; <sup>#</sup>significant <0.05 vs. other time points.</p
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