2,308 research outputs found

    Healthy Steps at 15: The Past and Future of an Innovative Preventive Care Model for Young Children

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    Evaluates a model for preventive pediatric care for children up to age 3 that relies on mid-level specialists, including the program's spread, operating costs, funding, challenges, and potential effects of healthcare reform. Includes site profiles

    Understanding International Debt Crisis

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    Understanding International Debt Crisis

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    Radiation therapy combined with intracerebral administration of carboplatin for the treatment of brain tumors

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    Background: In this study we determined if treatment combining radiation therapy (RT) with intracerebral (i.c.) administration of carboplatin to F98 glioma bearing rats could improve survival over that previously reported by us with a 15 Gy dose (5 Gy × 3) of 6 MV photons.Methods: First, in order to reduce tumor interstitial pressure, a biodistribution study was carried out to determine if pretreatment with dexamethasone alone or in combination with mannitol and furosemide (DMF) would increase carboplatin uptake following convection enhanced delivery (CED). Next, therapy studies were carried out in rats that had received carboplatin either by CED over 30 min (20 μg) or by Alzet pumps over 7 d (84 μg), followed by RT using a LINAC to deliver either 20 Gy (5 Gy × 4) or 15 Gy (7.5 Gy × 2) dose at 6 or 24 hrs after drug administration. Finally, a study was carried out to determine if efficacy could be improved by decreasing the time interval between drug administration and RT.Results: Tumor carboplatin values for D and DMF-treated rats were 9.4 ±4.4 and 12.4 ±3.2 μg/g, respectively, which were not significantly different (P = 0.14). The best survival data were obtained by combining pump delivery with 5 Gy × 4 of X-irradiation with a mean survival time (MST) of 107.7 d and a 43% cure rate vs. 83.6 d with CED vs. 30-35 d for RT alone and 24.6 d for untreated controls. Treatment-related mortality was observed when RT was initiated 6 h after CED of carboplatin and RT was started 7 d after tumor implantation. Dividing carboplatin into two 10 μg doses and RT into two 7.5 Gy fractions, administered 24 hrs later, yielded survival data (MST 82.1 d with a 25% cure rate) equivalent to that previously reported with 5 Gy × 3 and 20 μg of carboplatin.Conclusions: Although the best survival data were obtained by pump delivery, CED was highly effective in combination with 20 Gy, or as previously reported, 15 Gy, and the latter would be preferable since it would produce less late tissue effects.peer-reviewe

    Translating Research Into Practice: Speeding the Adoption of Innovative Health Care Programs

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    Looks at case studies of four innovative clinical programs to determine key factors influencing the diffusion and adoption of innovations in health care

    Predicting the influence of a p2-symmetric substrate on molecular self-organization with an interaction-site model

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    An interaction-site model can a priori predict molecular selforganisation on a new substrate in Monte Carlo simulations. This is experimentally confirmed with scanning tunnelling microscopy on Fre´chet dendrons of a pentacontane template. Local and global ordering motifs, inclusion molecules and a rotated unit cell are correctly predicted

    Transient and Highly Polarized Double-Peaked H-alpha Emission in the Seyfert 2 Nucleus of NGC 2110

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    We have discovered an extremely broad, double-peaked H-alpha emission line in the polarized flux spectrum of NGC 2110, establishing that this well-studied Seyfert 2 galaxy contains a disk-like hidden broad-line region (BLR). Several properties of NGC 2110 suggest that it is an obscured twin of Arp 102B, the prototypical double-peaked emission-line active galactic nucleus (AGN). A comparison between our data and previous spectra of NGC 2110 indicates that the double-peaked H-alpha feature is transient. The presence of a disk-like BLR in NGC 2110 has important implications for AGNs: it expands the range of properties exhibited by Seyfert 2 galaxies, and the fact that the BLR is obscured by a torus-like structure provides the first evidence that double-peaked emitters and classical Seyfert nuclei may have the same basic parsec-scale geometry.Comment: 5 pages, including 3 postscript figures. Uses emulateapj. Accepted for publication in ApJ Letter

    A Chandra view of NGC 3621: a bulgeless galaxy hosting an AGN in its early phase?

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    We report the detection of a weak X-ray point source coincident with the nucleus of the bulgeless disk galaxy NGC 3621, recently discovered by Spitzer to display high ionization mid-infrared lines typically associated with AGN. These Chandra observations provide confirmation for the presence of an AGN in this galaxy, adding to the growing evidence that black holes do form and grow in isolated bulgeless disk galaxies. Although the low signal-to-noise ratio of the X-ray spectrum prevents us from carrying out a detailed spectral analysis of the nuclear source, the X-ray results, combined with the IR and optical spectroscopic results, suggests that NGC 3621 harbors a heavily absorbed AGN, with a supermassive black hole of relatively small mass accreting at a high rate. Chandra also reveals the presence of two bright sources straddling the nucleus located almost symmetrically at 20" from the center. Both sources have X-ray spectra that are well-fitted by an absorbed power-law model. Assuming they are at the distance of NGC 3621, these two sources have luminosities of the order of 1.e39 erg/s, which make them ULXs and suggest that they are black hole systems. Estimates of the black hole mass based on the X-ray spectral analysis and scaling laws of black hole systems suggest that the 2 bright sources might be intermediate mass black holes with M_BH of the order of a few thousand solar masses. However, higher quality X-ray data combined with multi-wavelength observations are necessary to confirm these conclusions.Comment: 12 pages, 9 figures, 1 table, accepted for publication in Ap

    Investigating Atomic Details of the CaF2_2(111) Surface with a qPlus Sensor

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    The (111) surface of CaF2_2 has been intensively studied with large-amplitude frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy and atomic contrast formation is now well understood. It has been shown that the apparent contrast patterns obtained with a polar tip strongly depend on the tip terminating ion and three sub-lattices of anions and cations can be imaged. Here, we study the details of atomic contrast formation on CaF2_2(111) with small-amplitude force microscopy utilizing the qPlus sensor that has been shown to provide utmost resolution at high scanning stability. Step edges resulting from cleaving crystals in-situ in the ultra-high vacuum appear as very sharp structures and on flat terraces, the atomic corrugation is seen in high clarity even for large area scans. The atomic structure is also not lost when scanning across triple layer step edges. High resolution scans of small surface areas yield contrast features of anion- and cation sub-lattices with unprecedented resolution. These contrast patterns are related to previously reported theoretical results.Comment: 18 pages, 9 Figures, presented at 7th Int Conf Noncontact AFM Seattle, USA Sep 12-15 2004, accepted for publication in Nanotechnology, http://www.iop.or

    The Lick AGN Monitoring Project 2011: Dynamical Modeling of the Broad Line Region in Mrk 50

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    We present dynamical modeling of the broad line region (BLR) in the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 50 using reverberation mapping data taken as part of the Lick AGN Monitoring Project (LAMP) 2011. We model the reverberation mapping data directly, constraining the geometry and kinematics of the BLR, as well as deriving a black hole mass estimate that does not depend on a normalizing factor or virial coefficient. We find that the geometry of the BLR in Mrk 50 is a nearly face-on thick disk, with a mean radius of 9.6(+1.2,-0.9) light days, a width of the BLR of 6.9(+1.2,-1.1) light days, and a disk opening angle of 25\pm10 degrees above the plane. We also constrain the inclination angle to be 9(+7,-5) degrees, close to face-on. Finally, the black hole mass of Mrk 50 is inferred to be log10(M(BH)/Msun) = 7.57(+0.44,-0.27). By comparison to the virial black hole mass estimate from traditional reverberation mapping analysis, we find the normalizing constant (virial coefficient) to be log10(f) = 0.78(+0.44,-0.27), consistent with the commonly adopted mean value of 0.74 based on aligning the M(BH)-{\sigma}* relation for AGN and quiescent galaxies. While our dynamical model includes the possibility of a net inflow or outflow in the BLR, we cannot distinguish between these two scenarios.Comment: Accepted for publication in ApJ. 8 pages, 6 figure
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