355 research outputs found

    Globalization and Business Cycle Transmission

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    The paper uses long-run GDP data for developed countries drawn from Maddison (2003) to generate deviation cycles for the period from 1870 to 2001. The cyclical deviates are examined for their bilateral cross-correlation values in three separate periods, those of the first globalization wave (1870 to 1914), the period of the "bloc economy" (1915 to 1959) and for the period of the second globalization (1960-2001). Cluster analysis is applied and the McNemar test is used to test for the relative coherence of alternative groupings of countries in the three periods. The bloc economy period emerges as one that features some well-defined sub-global clusters, where the second globalization period does not, the first globalization period lying between the two in this respect. The second globalization period shows a generally higher level of cross correlations and a lower variance than the other two periods. The features uncovered suggest that the second globalization period is indeed one that comprises a more inclusive world economy than ever before.Length: 29 pagesGlobalization, Bloc economy, Business cycle, Cluster analysis, McNemar test

    The Intranational Business Cycle: Evidence from Japan

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    This paper studies the intranational business cycle -that is the set of regional (prefecture) business cycles- in Japan. One reason for choosing to examine the Japanese case is that long time series and relatively detailed data are available. A Hodrick-Prescott filter is applied to identify the cycles in annual data from 1955 to 1995 and bilateral cross-correlation coefficients are calculated for all the pairs of prefectures. Comparisons are made with similar sets of bilateral cross correlation coefficients calculated for the States of the US and for the member countries of a "synthetic Euro Area". The paper then turns to an econometric explanation of the cross-correlation coefficients (using Fisher's z-transform), in a panel data GMM estimation framework. An augmented gravity model provides the basic model for the investigation, whilst the richness of the data base also allows for additional models to be represented.Intranational business cycle, Hodrick-prescott filter, Optimal Currency Area, Gravity Model, Market potential, Heckscher Ohlin theorem

    The Intranational Business Cycle: Evidence from Japan

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    This paper studies the intranational business cycle - that is the set of regional (prefecture) business cycles - in Japan. One reason for choosing to examine the Japanese case is that long time series and relatively detailed data are available. A Hodrick-Prescott filter is applied to identify the cycles in annual data from 1955 to 1995 and bilateral cross-correlation coefficients are calculated for all the pairs of prefectures. Comparisons are made with similar sets of bilateral cross correlation coefficients calculated for the States of the US and for the member countries of a "synthetic Euro Area" The paper then turns to an econometric explanation of the cross-correlation coefficients (using Fisher's z-transform), in a panel data GMM estimation framework. An augmented gravity model provides the basic model for the investigation, whilst the richness of the data base also allows for additional models to be represented.Intranational business cycle, Hodrick-Prescott filter, Optimal Currency Area, Gravity Model, Market potential, Heckscher Ohlin theorem

    The Home Bias and Capital Income Flows between Countries and Regions

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    This paper documents a marked increase in international consumption risk sharing throughout the recent globalization period. Unlike earlier studies that have found it difficult to document a consistent effect of financial globalization on international consumption comovements, we make use of the information implicit in the relative levels of consumption and output to measure long-run risk sharing among OECD countries and US federal states. We derive our empirical setup from a deliberately simplistic model in which countries can trade perpetual claims to each other?s output (Shiller securities). This model allows us to identify the channels through which improvements in international risk sharing have come about. The model predicts crosscountry and cross-regional income flows with considerable precision. Both international income flows as well as consumption risk sharing have increased since 1990, in line with the gradual removal of country portfolio home bias documented elsewhere. Still, the increase in international income flows falls short of explaining all of the consumption risk sharing we see in international data. We show that heterogeneity in countries? gross foreign asset positions is important in explaining this result. While countries with less portfolio home bias enjoy better consumption risk sharing, our findings also suggest that heterogeneity in country portfolios opens an separate channel for consumption risk sharing, possibly through asymmetric valuation effects that have been emphasized in the recent literature. --Consumption Risk Sharing,International and regional business cycles,Capital flows,Home Bias,Non-stationary panel data

    Close to Balance or in Surplus. A Policy Maker’s Guide to the Implementation of the Stability and Growth Pact

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    currency; economic integration; EMU; Euro; European Central Bank; political economy; stability pact

    The Economic Importance of Fiscal Rules

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    The present paper provides an assessment of the effect of the recent revision of the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) on the European economies. A set of structural VARs, one for each eurozone country, is estimated. The estimated models are then used to assess the possible effect of alternative sets of fiscal rules, with particular attention to the Stability and Growth Pact in its old and reformed versions. The investigation suggests that fiscal policy has had in the past a limited smoothing effect on the cycle, and therefore the cost of the old rules in the corrective arm of the Pact was also limited. As for the reform of the Pact, the analysis is overall supportive of the new country-specific Medium Term Objectives. The modified rules of the Excessive deficit procedure are likely to give the governments only a limited extra leeway to reduce the variability of the cycle.European Monetary Union, Stability and Growth Pact, fiscal-monetary interactions

    Common and Spatial Drivers in Regional Business Cycles

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    We examine real business cycle convergence for 41 euro area regions and 48 US states. Results obtained by a panel model with spatial correlation indicate that the relevance of common business cycle factors is rather stable over the past two decades in the euro area and the US. Ongoing business cycle convergence often detected in a country data is not confirmed at the regional level. The degree of synchronization across the euro area is similar to that to be found for the US states. Thus, the lack of convergence does not seem to be an impediment to a common monetary policy.Business cycle convergence, spatial correlation, spatial panel model
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